Sonnet by William Shakespeare Open Source Shakespeare 生誕450年

SONNET I (read)1(read B)1-10

From fairest creatures we desire increase,
That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decease,
His tender heir might bear his memory:
But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes, 5
Feed'st thy light'st flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies,
Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.
Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament
And only herald to the gaudy spring, 10
Within thine own bud buriest thy content
And, tender churl, makest waste in niggarding.
    Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
    To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee. 14

SONNET II (read)2

When forty winters shall beseige thy brow,
And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field,
Thy youth's proud livery, so gazed on now,
Will be a tatter'd weed, of small worth held:
Then being ask'd where all thy beauty lies, 5
Where all the treasure of thy lusty days,
To say, within thine own deep-sunken eyes,
Were an all-eating shame and thriftless praise.
How much more praise deserved thy beauty's use,
If thou couldst answer 'This fair child of mine 10
Shall sum my count and make my old excuse,'
Proving his beauty by succession thine!
    This were to be new made when thou art old,
    And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold. 14

SONNET III (read)3

Look in thy glass, and tell the face thou viewest
Now is the time that face should form another;
Whose fresh repair if now thou not renewest,
Thou dost beguile the world, unbless some mother.
For where is she so fair whose unear'd womb 5
Disdains the tillage of thy husbandry?
Or who is he so fond will be the tomb
Of his self-love, to stop posterity?
Thou art thy mother's glass, and she in thee
Calls back the lovely April of her prime: 10
So thou through windows of thine age shall see
Despite of wrinkles this thy golden time.
    But if thou live, remember'd not to be,
    Die single, and thine image dies with thee. 14

SONNET IV (read)4

Unthrifty loveliness, why dost thou spend
Upon thyself thy beauty's legacy?
Nature's bequest gives nothing but doth lend,
And being frank she lends to those are free.
Then, beauteous niggard, why dost thou abuse 5
The bounteous largess given thee to give?
Profitless usurer, why dost thou use
So great a sum of sums, yet canst not live?
For having traffic with thyself alone,
Thou of thyself thy sweet self dost deceive. 10
Then how, when nature calls thee to be gone,
What acceptable audit canst thou leave?
    Thy unused beauty must be tomb'd with thee,
    Which, used, lives th' executor to be. 14

SONNET V (read)5

Those hours, that with gentle work did frame
The lovely gaze where every eye doth dwell,
Will play the tyrants to the very same
And that unfair which fairly doth excel:
For never-resting time leads summer on 5
To hideous winter and confounds him there;
Sap cheque'd with frost and lusty leaves quite gone,
Beauty o'ersnow'd and bareness every where:
Then, were not summer's distillation left,
A liquid prisoner pent in walls of glass, 10
Beauty's effect with beauty were bereft,
Nor it nor no remembrance what it was:
    But flowers distill'd though they with winter meet,
    Leese but their show; their substance still lives sweet. 14

SONNET VI (read)6

Then let not winter's ragged hand deface
In thee thy summer, ere thou be distill'd:
Make sweet some vial; treasure thou some place
With beauty's treasure, ere it be self-kill'd.
That use is not forbidden usury, 5
Which happies those that pay the willing loan;
That's for thyself to breed another thee,
Or ten times happier, be it ten for one;
Ten times thyself were happier than thou art,
If ten of thine ten times refigured thee: 10
Then what could death do, if thou shouldst depart,
Leaving thee living in posterity?
    Be not self-will'd, for thou art much too fair
    To be death's conquest and make worms thine heir. 14

SONNET VII (read)7

Lo! in the orient when the gracious light
Lifts up his burning head, each under eye
Doth homage to his new-appearing sight,
Serving with looks his sacred majesty;
And having climb'd the steep-up heavenly hill, 5
Resembling strong youth in his middle age,
yet mortal looks adore his beauty still,
Attending on his golden pilgrimage;
But when from highmost pitch, with weary car,
Like feeble age, he reeleth from the day, 10
The eyes, 'fore duteous, now converted are
From his low tract and look another way:
    So thou, thyself out-going in thy noon,
    Unlook'd on diest, unless thou get a son. 14


Music to hear, why hear'st thou music sadly?
Sweets with sweets war not, joy delights in joy.
Why lovest thou that which thou receivest not gladly,
Or else receivest with pleasure thine annoy?
If the true concord of well-tuned sounds, 5
By unions married, do offend thine ear,
They do but sweetly chide thee, who confounds
In singleness the parts that thou shouldst bear.
Mark how one string, sweet husband to another,
Strikes each in each by mutual ordering, 10
Resembling sire and child and happy mother
Who all in one, one pleasing note do sing:
    Whose speechless song, being many, seeming one,
    Sings this to thee: 'thou single wilt prove none.' 14

SONNET IX (read)9

Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye
That thou consumest thyself in single life?
Ah! if thou issueless shalt hap to die.
The world will wail thee, like a makeless wife;
The world will be thy widow and still weep 5
That thou no form of thee hast left behind,
When every private widow well may keep
By children's eyes her husband's shape in mind.
Look, what an unthrift in the world doth spend
Shifts but his place, for still the world enjoys it; 10
But beauty's waste hath in the world an end,
And kept unused, the user so destroys it.
    No love toward others in that bosom sits
    That on himself such murderous shame commits. 14

SONNET X (read)10

For shame! deny that thou bear'st love to any,
Who for thyself art so unprovident.
Grant, if thou wilt, thou art beloved of many,
But that thou none lovest is most evident;
For thou art so possess'd with murderous hate 5
That 'gainst thyself thou stick'st not to conspire.
Seeking that beauteous roof to ruinate
Which to repair should be thy chief desire.
O, change thy thought, that I may change my mind!
Shall hate be fairer lodged than gentle love? 10
Be, as thy presence is, gracious and kind,
Or to thyself at least kind-hearted prove:
    Make thee another self, for love of me,
    That beauty still may live in thine or thee. 14

SONNET XI (read)11(read B)11-20

As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou growest
In one of thine, from that which thou departest;
And that fresh blood which youngly thou bestowest
Thou mayst call thine when thou from youth convertest.
Herein lives wisdom, beauty and increase: 5
Without this, folly, age and cold decay:
If all were minded so, the times should cease
And threescore year would make the world away.
Let those whom Nature hath not made for store,
Harsh featureless and rude, barrenly perish: 10
Look, whom she best endow'd she gave the more;
Which bounteous gift thou shouldst in bounty cherish:
    She carved thee for her seal, and meant thereby
    Thou shouldst print more, not let that copy die. 14

SONNET XII (read)12

When I do count the clock that tells the time,
And see the brave day sunk in hideous night;
When I behold the violet past prime,
And sable curls all silver'd o'er with white;
When lofty trees I see barren of leaves 5
Which erst from heat did canopy the herd,
And summer's green all girded up in sheaves
Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard,
Then of thy beauty do I question make,
That thou among the wastes of time must go, 10
Since sweets and beauties do themselves forsake
And die as fast as they see others grow;
    And nothing 'gainst Time's scythe can make defence
    Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence. 14

SONNET XIII (read)13

O, that you were yourself! but, love, you are
No longer yours than you yourself here live:
Against this coming end you should prepare,
And your sweet semblance to some other give.
So should that beauty which you hold in lease 5
Find no determination: then you were
Yourself again after yourself's decease,
When your sweet issue your sweet form should bear.
Who lets so fair a house fall to decay,
Which husbandry in honour might uphold 10
Against the stormy gusts of winter's day
And barren rage of death's eternal cold?
    O, none but unthrifts! Dear my love, you know
    You had a father: let your son say so. 14

SONNET XIV (read)14

Not from the stars do I my judgment pluck;
And yet methinks I have astronomy,
But not to tell of good or evil luck,
Of plagues, of dearths, or seasons' quality;
Nor can I fortune to brief minutes tell, 5
Pointing to each his thunder, rain and wind,
Or say with princes if it shall go well,
By oft predict that I in heaven find:
But from thine eyes my knowledge I derive,
And, constant stars, in them I read such art 10
As truth and beauty shall together thrive,
If from thyself to store thou wouldst convert;
    Or else of thee this I prognosticate:
    Thy end is truth's and beauty's doom and date. 14

SONNET XV (read)15

When I consider every thing that grows
Holds in perfection but a little moment,
That this huge stage presenteth nought but shows
Whereon the stars in secret influence comment;
When I perceive that men as plants increase, 5
Cheered and cheque'd even by the self-same sky,
Vaunt in their youthful sap, at height decrease,
And wear their brave state out of memory;
Then the conceit of this inconstant stay
Sets you most rich in youth before my sight, 10
Where wasteful Time debateth with Decay,
To change your day of youth to sullied night;
    And all in war with Time for love of you,
    As he takes from you, I engraft you new. 14

SONNET XVI (read)16

But wherefore do not you a mightier way
Make war upon this bloody tyrant, Time?
And fortify yourself in your decay
With means more blessed than my barren rhyme?
Now stand you on the top of happy hours, 5
And many maiden gardens yet unset
With virtuous wish would bear your living flowers,
Much liker than your painted counterfeit:
So should the lines of life that life repair,
Which this, Time's pencil, or my pupil pen, 10
Neither in inward worth nor outward fair,
Can make you live yourself in eyes of men.
    To give away yourself keeps yourself still,
    And you must live, drawn by your own sweet skill. 14

SONNET XVII (read)17

Who will believe my verse in time to come,
If it were fill'd with your most high deserts?
Though yet, heaven knows, it is but as a tomb
Which hides your life and shows not half your parts.
If I could write the beauty of your eyes 5
And in fresh numbers number all your graces,
The age to come would say 'This poet lies:
Such heavenly touches ne'er touch'd earthly faces.'
So should my papers yellow'd with their age
Be scorn'd like old men of less truth than tongue, 10
And your true rights be term'd a poet's rage
And stretched metre of an antique song:
    But were some child of yours alive that time,
    You should live twice; in it and in my rhyme. 14


Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, 5
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; 10
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou growest:
    So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
    So long lives this and this gives life to thee. 14

SONNET XIX (read)19

Devouring Time, blunt thou the lion's paws,
And make the earth devour her own sweet brood;
Pluck the keen teeth from the fierce tiger's jaws,
And burn the long-lived phoenix in her blood;
Make glad and sorry seasons as thou fleets, 5
And do whate'er thou wilt, swift-footed Time,
To the wide world and all her fading sweets;
But I forbid thee one most heinous crime:
O, carve not with thy hours my love's fair brow,
Nor draw no lines there with thine antique pen; 10
Him in thy course untainted do allow
For beauty's pattern to succeeding men.
    Yet, do thy worst, old Time: despite thy wrong,
    My love shall in my verse ever live young. 14

SONNET XX (read)20

A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted
Hast thou, the master-mistress of my passion;
A woman's gentle heart, but not acquainted
With shifting change, as is false women's fashion;
An eye more bright than theirs, less false in rolling, 5
Gilding the object whereupon it gazeth;
A man in hue, all 'hues' in his controlling,
Much steals men's eyes and women's souls amazeth.
And for a woman wert thou first created;
Till Nature, as she wrought thee, fell a-doting, 10
And by addition me of thee defeated,
By adding one thing to my purpose nothing.
    But since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure,
    Mine be thy love and thy love's use their treasure. 14

SONNET XXI (read)21(read B)21-30

So is it not with me as with that Muse
Stirr'd by a painted beauty to his verse,
Who heaven itself for ornament doth use
And every fair with his fair doth rehearse
Making a couplement of proud compare, 5
With sun and moon, with earth and sea's rich gems,
With April's first-born flowers, and all things rare
That heaven's air in this huge rondure hems.
O' let me, true in love, but truly write,
And then believe me, my love is as fair 10
As any mother's child, though not so bright
As those gold candles fix'd in heaven's air:
    Let them say more than like of hearsay well;
    I will not praise that purpose not to sell. 14

SONNET XXII (read)22

My glass shall not persuade me I am old,
So long as youth and thou are of one date;
But when in thee time's furrows I behold,
Then look I death my days should expiate.
For all that beauty that doth cover thee 5
Is but the seemly raiment of my heart,
Which in thy breast doth live, as thine in me:
How can I then be elder than thou art?
O, therefore, love, be of thyself so wary
As I, not for myself, but for thee will; 10
Bearing thy heart, which I will keep so chary
As tender nurse her babe from faring ill.
    Presume not on thy heart when mine is slain;
    Thou gavest me thine, not to give back again. 14


As an unperfect actor on the stage
Who with his fear is put besides his part,
Or some fierce thing replete with too much rage,
Whose strength's abundance weakens his own heart.
So I, for fear of trust, forget to say 5
The perfect ceremony of love's rite,
And in mine own love's strength seem to decay,
O'ercharged with burden of mine own love's might.
O, let my books be then the eloquence
And dumb presagers of my speaking breast, 10
Who plead for love and look for recompense
More than that tongue that more hath more express'd.
    O, learn to read what silent love hath writ:
    To hear with eyes belongs to love's fine wit. 14

SONNET XXIV (read)24

Mine eye hath play'd the painter and hath stell'd
Thy beauty's form in table of my heart;
My body is the frame wherein 'tis held,
And perspective it is the painter's art.
For through the painter must you see his skill, 5
To find where your true image pictured lies;
Which in my bosom's shop is hanging still,
That hath his windows glazed with thine eyes.
Now see what good turns eyes for eyes have done:
Mine eyes have drawn thy shape, and thine for me 10
Are windows to my breast, where-through the sun
Delights to peep, to gaze therein on thee;
    Yet eyes this cunning want to grace their art;
    They draw but what they see, know not the heart. 14

SONNET XXV (read)25

Let those who are in favour with their stars
Of public honour and proud titles boast,
Whilst I, whom fortune of such triumph bars,
Unlook'd for joy in that I honour most.
Great princes' favourites their fair leaves spread 5
But as the marigold at the sun's eye,
And in themselves their pride lies buried,
For at a frown they in their glory die.
The painful warrior famoused for fight,
After a thousand victories once foil'd, 10
Is from the book of honour razed quite,
And all the rest forgot for which he toil'd:
    Then happy I, that love and am beloved
    Where I may not remove nor be removed. 14

SONNET XXVI (read)26

Lord of my love, to whom in vassalage
Thy merit hath my duty strongly knit,
To thee I send this written embassage,
To witness duty, not to show my wit:
Duty so great, which wit so poor as mine 5
May make seem bare, in wanting words to show it,
But that I hope some good conceit of thine
In thy soul's thought, all naked, will bestow it;
Till whatsoever star that guides my moving
Points on me graciously with fair aspect 10
And puts apparel on my tatter'd loving,
To show me worthy of thy sweet respect:
    Then may I dare to boast how I do love thee;
    Till then not show my head where thou mayst prove me. 14


Weary with toil, I haste me to my bed,
The dear repose for limbs with travel tired;
But then begins a journey in my head,
To work my mind, when body's work's expired:
For then my thoughts, from far where I abide, 5
Intend a zealous pilgrimage to thee,
And keep my drooping eyelids open wide,
Looking on darkness which the blind do see
Save that my soul's imaginary sight
Presents thy shadow to my sightless view, 10
Which, like a jewel hung in ghastly night,
Makes black night beauteous and her old face new.
    Lo! thus, by day my limbs, by night my mind,
    For thee and for myself no quiet find. 14


How can I then return in happy plight,
That am debarr'd the benefit of rest?
When day's oppression is not eased by night,
But day by night, and night by day, oppress'd?
And each, though enemies to either's reign, 5
Do in consent shake hands to torture me;
The one by toil, the other to complain
How far I toil, still farther off from thee.
I tell the day, to please them thou art bright
And dost him grace when clouds do blot the heaven: 10
So flatter I the swart-complexion'd night,
When sparkling stars twire not thou gild'st the even.
    But day doth daily draw my sorrows longer
    And night doth nightly make grief's strength seem stronger. 14

SONNET XXIX (read)29

When, in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes,
I all alone beweep my outcast state
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries
And look upon myself and curse my fate,
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, 5
Featured like him, like him with friends possess'd,
Desiring this man's art and that man's scope,
With what I most enjoy contented least;
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising,
Haply I think on thee, and then my state, 10
Like to the lark at break of day arising
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate;
    For thy sweet love remember'd such wealth brings
    That then I scorn to change my state with kings. 14

SONNET XXX (read)30

When to the sessions of sweet silent thought
I summon up remembrance of things past,
I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought,
And with old woes new wail my dear time's waste:
Then can I drown an eye, unused to flow, 5
For precious friends hid in death's dateless night,
And weep afresh love's long since cancell'd woe,
And moan the expense of many a vanish'd sight:
Then can I grieve at grievances foregone,
And heavily from woe to woe tell o'er 10
The sad account of fore-bemoaned moan,
Which I new pay as if not paid before.
    But if the while I think on thee, dear friend,
    All losses are restored and sorrows end. 14

SONNET XXXI (read)31(read B)31-40

Thy bosom is endeared with all hearts,
Which I by lacking have supposed dead,
And there reigns love and all love's loving parts,
And all those friends which I thought buried.
How many a holy and obsequious tear 5
Hath dear religious love stol'n from mine eye
As interest of the dead, which now appear
But things removed that hidden in thee lie!
Thou art the grave where buried love doth live,
Hung with the trophies of my lovers gone, 10
Who all their parts of me to thee did give;
That due of many now is thine alone:
    Their images I loved I view in thee,
    And thou, all they, hast all the all of me. 14


If thou survive my well-contented day,
When that churl Death my bones with dust shall cover,
And shalt by fortune once more re-survey
These poor rude lines of thy deceased lover,
Compare them with the bettering of the time, 5
And though they be outstripp'd by every pen,
Reserve them for my love, not for their rhyme,
Exceeded by the height of happier men.
O, then vouchsafe me but this loving thought:
'Had my friend's Muse grown with this growing age, 10
A dearer birth than this his love had brought,
To march in ranks of better equipage:
    But since he died and poets better prove,
    Theirs for their style I'll read, his for his love.' 14


Full many a glorious morning have I seen
Flatter the mountain-tops with sovereign eye,
Kissing with golden face the meadows green,
Gilding pale streams with heavenly alchemy;
Anon permit the basest clouds to ride 5
With ugly rack on his celestial face,
And from the forlorn world his visage hide,
Stealing unseen to west with this disgrace:
Even so my sun one early morn did shine
With all triumphant splendor on my brow; 10
But out, alack! he was but one hour mine;
The region cloud hath mask'd him from me now.
    Yet him for this my love no whit disdaineth;
    Suns of the world may stain when heaven's sun staineth. 14


Why didst thou promise such a beauteous day,
And make me travel forth without my cloak,
To let base clouds o'ertake me in my way,
Hiding thy bravery in their rotten smoke?
'Tis not enough that through the cloud thou break, 5
To dry the rain on my storm-beaten face,
For no man well of such a salve can speak
That heals the wound and cures not the disgrace:
Nor can thy shame give physic to my grief;
Though thou repent, yet I have still the loss: 10
The offender's sorrow lends but weak relief
To him that bears the strong offence's cross.
    Ah! but those tears are pearl which thy love sheds,
    And they are rich and ransom all ill deeds. 14

SONNET XXXV (read)35

No more be grieved at that which thou hast done:
Roses have thorns, and silver fountains mud;
Clouds and eclipses stain both moon and sun,
And loathsome canker lives in sweetest bud.
All men make faults, and even I in this, 5
Authorizing thy trespass with compare,
Myself corrupting, salving thy amiss,
Excusing thy sins more than thy sins are;
For to thy sensual fault I bring in sense--
Thy adverse party is thy advocate-- 10
And 'gainst myself a lawful plea commence:
Such civil war is in my love and hate
    That I an accessary needs must be
    To that sweet thief which sourly robs from me. 14


Let me confess that we two must be twain,
Although our undivided loves are one:
So shall those blots that do with me remain
Without thy help by me be borne alone.
In our two loves there is but one respect, 5
Though in our lives a separable spite,
Which though it alter not love's sole effect,
Yet doth it steal sweet hours from love's delight.
I may not evermore acknowledge thee,
Lest my bewailed guilt should do thee shame, 10
Nor thou with public kindness honour me,
Unless thou take that honour from thy name:
    But do not so; I love thee in such sort
    As, thou being mine, mine is thy good report. 14


As a decrepit father takes delight
To see his active child do deeds of youth,
So I, made lame by fortune's dearest spite,
Take all my comfort of thy worth and truth.
For whether beauty, birth, or wealth, or wit, 5
Or any of these all, or all, or more,
Entitled in thy parts do crowned sit,
I make my love engrafted to this store:
So then I am not lame, poor, nor despised,
Whilst that this shadow doth such substance give 10
That I in thy abundance am sufficed
And by a part of all thy glory live.
    Look, what is best, that best I wish in thee:
    This wish I have; then ten times happy me! 14


How can my Muse want subject to invent,
While thou dost breathe, that pour'st into my verse
Thine own sweet argument, too excellent
For every vulgar paper to rehearse?
O, give thyself the thanks, if aught in me 5
Worthy perusal stand against thy sight;
For who's so dumb that cannot write to thee,
When thou thyself dost give invention light?
Be thou the tenth Muse, ten times more in worth
Than those old nine which rhymers invocate; 10
And he that calls on thee, let him bring forth
Eternal numbers to outlive long date.
    If my slight Muse do please these curious days,
    The pain be mine, but thine shall be the praise. 14


O, how thy worth with manners may I sing,
When thou art all the better part of me?
What can mine own praise to mine own self bring?
And what is 't but mine own when I praise thee?
Even for this let us divided live, 5
And our dear love lose name of single one,
That by this separation I may give
That due to thee which thou deservest alone.
O absence, what a torment wouldst thou prove,
Were it not thy sour leisure gave sweet leave 10
To entertain the time with thoughts of love,
Which time and thoughts so sweetly doth deceive,
    And that thou teachest how to make one twain,
    By praising him here who doth hence remain! 14

SONNET XL (read)40

Take all my loves, my love, yea, take them all;
What hast thou then more than thou hadst before?
No love, my love, that thou mayst true love call;
All mine was thine before thou hadst this more.
Then if for my love thou my love receivest, 5
I cannot blame thee for my love thou usest;
But yet be blamed, if thou thyself deceivest
By wilful taste of what thyself refusest.
I do forgive thy robbery, gentle thief,
Although thou steal thee all my poverty; 10
And yet, love knows, it is a greater grief
To bear love's wrong than hate's known injury.
    Lascivious grace, in whom all ill well shows,
    Kill me with spites; yet we must not be foes. 14

SONNET XLI (read)41
(read B)41-50

Those petty wrongs that liberty commits,
When I am sometime absent from thy heart,
Thy beauty and thy years full well befits,
For still temptation follows where thou art.
Gentle thou art and therefore to be won, 5
Beauteous thou art, therefore to be assailed;
And when a woman woos, what woman's son
Will sourly leave her till she have prevailed?
Ay me! but yet thou mightest my seat forbear,
And chide try beauty and thy straying youth, 10
Who lead thee in their riot even there
Where thou art forced to break a twofold truth,
    Hers by thy beauty tempting her to thee,
    Thine, by thy beauty being false to me. 14

SONNET XLII (read)42

That thou hast her, it is not all my grief,
And yet it may be said I loved her dearly;
That she hath thee, is of my wailing chief,
A loss in love that touches me more nearly.
Loving offenders, thus I will excuse ye: 5
Thou dost love her, because thou knowst I love her;
And for my sake even so doth she abuse me,
Suffering my friend for my sake to approve her.
If I lose thee, my loss is my love's gain,
And losing her, my friend hath found that loss; 10
Both find each other, and I lose both twain,
And both for my sake lay on me this cross:
    But here's the joy; my friend and I are one;
    Sweet flattery! then she loves but me alone. 14


When most I wink, then do mine eyes best see,
For all the day they view things unrespected;
But when I sleep, in dreams they look on thee,
And darkly bright are bright in dark directed.
Then thou, whose shadow shadows doth make bright, 5
How would thy shadow's form form happy show
To the clear day with thy much clearer light,
When to unseeing eyes thy shade shines so!
How would, I say, mine eyes be blessed made
By looking on thee in the living day, 10
When in dead night thy fair imperfect shade
Through heavy sleep on sightless eyes doth stay!
    All days are nights to see till I see thee,
    And nights bright days when dreams do show thee me. 14

SONNET XLIV (read)44

If the dull substance of my flesh were thought,
Injurious distance should not stop my way;
For then despite of space I would be brought,
From limits far remote where thou dost stay.
No matter then although my foot did stand 5
Upon the farthest earth removed from thee;
For nimble thought can jump both sea and land
As soon as think the place where he would be.
But ah! thought kills me that I am not thought,
To leap large lengths of miles when thou art gone, 10
But that so much of earth and water wrought
I must attend time's leisure with my moan,
    Receiving nought by elements so slow
    But heavy tears, badges of either's woe. 14

SONNET XLV (read)45

The other two, slight air and purging fire,
Are both with thee, wherever I abide;
The first my thought, the other my desire,
These present-absent with swift motion slide.
For when these quicker elements are gone 5
In tender embassy of love to thee,
My life, being made of four, with two alone
Sinks down to death, oppress'd with melancholy;
Until life's composition be recured
By those swift messengers return'd from thee, 10
Who even but now come back again, assured
Of thy fair health, recounting it to me:
    This told, I joy; but then no longer glad,
    I send them back again and straight grow sad. 14

SONNET XLVI (read)460

Mine eye and heart are at a mortal war
How to divide the conquest of thy sight;
Mine eye my heart thy picture's sight would bar,
My heart mine eye the freedom of that right.
My heart doth plead that thou in him dost lie-- 5
A closet never pierced with crystal eyes--
But the defendant doth that plea deny
And says in him thy fair appearance lies.
To 'cide this title is impanneled
A quest of thoughts, all tenants to the heart, 10
And by their verdict is determined
The clear eye's moiety and the dear heart's part:
    As thus; mine eye's due is thy outward part,
    And my heart's right thy inward love of heart. 14


Betwixt mine eye and heart a league is took,
And each doth good turns now unto the other:
When that mine eye is famish'd for a look,
Or heart in love with sighs himself doth smother,
With my love's picture then my eye doth feast 5
And to the painted banquet bids my heart;
Another time mine eye is my heart's guest
And in his thoughts of love doth share a part:
So, either by thy picture or my love,
Thyself away art resent still with me; 10
For thou not farther than my thoughts canst move,
And I am still with them and they with thee;
    Or, if they sleep, thy picture in my sight
    Awakes my heart to heart's and eye's delight. 14


How careful was I, when I took my way,
Each trifle under truest bars to thrust,
That to my use it might unused stay
From hands of falsehood, in sure wards of trust!
But thou, to whom my jewels trifles are, 5
Most worthy of comfort, now my greatest grief,
Thou, best of dearest and mine only care,
Art left the prey of every vulgar thief.
Thee have I not lock'd up in any chest,
Save where thou art not, though I feel thou art, 10
Within the gentle closure of my breast,
From whence at pleasure thou mayst come and part;
    And even thence thou wilt be stol'n, I fear,
    For truth proves thievish for a prize so dear. 14

SONNET XLIX (read)49

Against that time, if ever that time come,
When I shall see thee frown on my defects,
When as thy love hath cast his utmost sum,
Call'd to that audit by advised respects;
Against that time when thou shalt strangely pass 5
And scarcely greet me with that sun thine eye,
When love, converted from the thing it was,
Shall reasons find of settled gravity,--
Against that time do I ensconce me here
Within the knowledge of mine own desert, 10
And this my hand against myself uprear,
To guard the lawful reasons on thy part:
    To leave poor me thou hast the strength of laws,
    Since why to love I can allege no cause. 14

SONNET L (read)50

How heavy do I journey on the way,
When what I seek, my weary travel's end,
Doth teach that ease and that repose to say
'Thus far the miles are measured from thy friend!'
The beast that bears me, tired with my woe, 5
Plods dully on, to bear that weight in me,
As if by some instinct the wretch did know
His rider loved not speed, being made from thee:
The bloody spur cannot provoke him on
That sometimes anger thrusts into his hide; 10
Which heavily he answers with a groan,
More sharp to me than spurring to his side;
    For that same groan doth put this in my mind;
    My grief lies onward and my joy behind. 14

SONNET LI (read)51
(read B)51-60

Thus can my love excuse the slow offence
Of my dull bearer when from thee I speed:
From where thou art why should I haste me thence?
Till I return, of posting is no need.
O, what excuse will my poor beast then find, 5
When swift extremity can seem but slow?
Then should I spur, though mounted on the wind;
In winged speed no motion shall I know:
Then can no horse with my desire keep pace;
Therefore desire of perfect'st love being made, 10
Shall neigh--no dull flesh--in his fiery race;
But love, for love, thus shall excuse my jade;
    Since from thee going he went wilful-slow,
    Towards thee I'll run, and give him leave to go. 14

SONNET LII (read)52

So am I as the rich, whose blessed key
Can bring him to his sweet up-locked treasure,
The which he will not every hour survey,
For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure.
Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare, 5
Since, seldom coming, in the long year set,
Like stones of worth they thinly placed are,
Or captain jewels in the carcanet.
So is the time that keeps you as my chest,
Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide, 10
To make some special instant special blest,
By new unfolding his imprison'd pride.
    Blessed are you, whose worthiness gives scope,
    Being had, to triumph, being lack'd, to hope. 14

SONNET LIII (read)53

What is your substance, whereof are you made,
That millions of strange shadows on you tend?
Since every one hath, every one, one shade,
And you, but one, can every shadow lend.
Describe Adonis, and the counterfeit 5
Is poorly imitated after you;
On Helen's cheek all art of beauty set,
And you in Grecian tires are painted new:
Speak of the spring and foison of the year;
The one doth shadow of your beauty show, 10
The other as your bounty doth appear;
And you in every blessed shape we know.
    In all external grace you have some part,
    But you like none, none you, for constant heart. 14

SONNET LIV (read)54

O, how much more doth beauty beauteous seem
By that sweet ornament which truth doth give!
The rose looks fair, but fairer we it deem
For that sweet odour which doth in it live.
The canker-blooms have full as deep a dye 5
As the perfumed tincture of the roses,
Hang on such thorns and play as wantonly
When summer's breath their masked buds discloses:
But, for their virtue only is their show,
They live unwoo'd and unrespected fade, 10
Die to themselves. Sweet roses do not so;
Of their sweet deaths are sweetest odours made:
    And so of you, beauteous and lovely youth,
    When that shall fade, my verse distills your truth. 14

SONNET LV (read)55

Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme;
But you shall shine more bright in these contents
Than unswept stone besmear'd with sluttish time.
When wasteful war shall statues overturn, 5
And broils root out the work of masonry,
Nor Mars his sword nor war's quick fire shall burn
The living record of your memory.
'Gainst death and all-oblivious enmity
Shall you pace forth; your praise shall still find room 10
Even in the eyes of all posterity
That wear this world out to the ending doom.
    So, till the judgment that yourself arise,
    You live in this, and dwell in lover's eyes. 14

SONNET LVI (read)56

Sweet love, renew thy force; be it not said
Thy edge should blunter be than appetite,
Which but to-day by feeding is allay'd,
To-morrow sharpen'd in his former might:
So, love, be thou; although to-day thou fill 5
Thy hungry eyes even till they wink with fullness,
To-morrow see again, and do not kill
The spirit of love with a perpetual dullness.
Let this sad interim like the ocean be
Which parts the shore, where two contracted new 10
Come daily to the banks, that, when they see
Return of love, more blest may be the view;
    Else call it winter, which being full of care
    Makes summer's welcome thrice more wish'd, more rare. 14

SONNET LVII (read)57

Being your slave, what should I do but tend
Upon the hours and times of your desire?
I have no precious time at all to spend,
Nor services to do, till you require.
Nor dare I chide the world-without-end hour 5
Whilst I, my sovereign, watch the clock for you,
Nor think the bitterness of absence sour
When you have bid your servant once adieu;
Nor dare I question with my jealous thought
Where you may be, or your affairs suppose, 10
But, like a sad slave, stay and think of nought
Save, where you are how happy you make those.
    So true a fool is love that in your will,
    Though you do any thing, he thinks no ill. 14


That god forbid that made me first your slave,
I should in thought control your times of pleasure,
Or at your hand the account of hours to crave,
Being your vassal, bound to stay your leisure!
O, let me suffer, being at your beck, 5
The imprison'd absence of your liberty;
And patience, tame to sufferance, bide each cheque,
Without accusing you of injury.
Be where you list, your charter is so strong
That you yourself may privilege your time 10
To what you will; to you it doth belong
Yourself to pardon of self-doing crime.
    I am to wait, though waiting so be hell;
    Not blame your pleasure, be it ill or well. 14

SONNET LIX (read)59

If there be nothing new, but that which is
Hath been before, how are our brains beguiled,
Which, labouring for invention, bear amiss
The second burden of a former child!
O, that record could with a backward look, 5
Even of five hundred courses of the sun,
Show me your image in some antique book,
Since mind at first in character was done!
That I might see what the old world could say
To this composed wonder of your frame; 10
Whether we are mended, or whether better they,
Or whether revolution be the same.
    O, sure I am, the wits of former days
    To subjects worse have given admiring praise. 14

SONNET LX (read)60

Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore,
So do our minutes hasten to their end;
Each changing place with that which goes before,
In sequent toil all forwards do contend.
Nativity, once in the main of light, 5
Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown'd,
Crooked elipses 'gainst his glory fight,
And Time that gave doth now his gift confound.
Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth
And delves the parallels in beauty's brow, 10
Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth,
And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow:
    And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand,
    Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand. 14

SONNET LXI (read)61(read B)61-70

Is it thy will thy image should keep open
My heavy eyelids to the weary night?
Dost thou desire my slumbers should be broken,
While shadows like to thee do mock my sight?
Is it thy spirit that thou send'st from thee 5
So far from home into my deeds to pry,
To find out shames and idle hours in me,
The scope and tenor of thy jealousy?
O, no! thy love, though much, is not so great:
It is my love that keeps mine eye awake; 10
Mine own true love that doth my rest defeat,
To play the watchman ever for thy sake:
    For thee watch I whilst thou dost wake elsewhere,
    From me far off, with others all too near. 14

SONNET LXII (read)62

Sin of self-love possesseth all mine eye
And all my soul and all my every part;
And for this sin there is no remedy,
It is so grounded inward in my heart.
Methinks no face so gracious is as mine, 5
No shape so true, no truth of such account;
And for myself mine own worth do define,
As I all other in all worths surmount.
But when my glass shows me myself indeed,
Beated and chopp'd with tann'd antiquity, 10
Mine own self-love quite contrary I read;
Self so self-loving were iniquity.
    'Tis thee, myself, that for myself I praise,
    Painting my age with beauty of thy days. 14


Against my love shall be, as I am now,
With Time's injurious hand crush'd and o'er-worn;
When hours have drain'd his blood and fill'd his brow
With lines and wrinkles; when his youthful morn
Hath travell'd on to age's steepy night, 5
And all those beauties whereof now he's king
Are vanishing or vanish'd out of sight,
Stealing away the treasure of his spring;
For such a time do I now fortify
Against confounding age's cruel knife, 10
That he shall never cut from memory
My sweet love's beauty, though my lover's life:
    His beauty shall in these black lines be seen,
    And they shall live, and he in them still green. 14

SONNET LXIV (read)64

When I have seen by Time's fell hand defaced
The rich proud cost of outworn buried age;
When sometime lofty towers I see down-razed
And brass eternal slave to mortal rage;
When I have seen the hungry ocean gain 5
Advantage on the kingdom of the shore,
And the firm soil win of the watery main,
Increasing store with loss and loss with store;
When I have seen such interchange of state,
Or state itself confounded to decay; 10
Ruin hath taught me thus to ruminate,
That Time will come and take my love away.
    This thought is as a death, which cannot choose
    But weep to have that which it fears to lose. 14

SONNET LXV (read)65

Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea,
But sad mortality o'er-sways their power,
How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea,
Whose action is no stronger than a flower?
O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out 5
Against the wreckful siege of battering days,
When rocks impregnable are not so stout,
Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays?
O fearful meditation! where, alack,
Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid? 10
Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back?
Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid?
    O, none, unless this miracle have might,
    That in black ink my love may still shine bright. 14

SONNET LXVI (read)66

Tired with all these, for restful death I cry,
As, to behold desert a beggar born,
And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity,
And purest faith unhappily forsworn,
And guilded honour shamefully misplaced, 5
And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted,
And right perfection wrongfully disgraced,
And strength by limping sway disabled,
And art made tongue-tied by authority,
And folly doctor-like controlling skill, 10
And simple truth miscall'd simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill:
    Tired with all these, from these would I be gone,
    Save that, to die, I leave my love alone. 14


Ah! wherefore with infection should he live,
And with his presence grace impiety,
That sin by him advantage should achieve
And lace itself with his society?
Why should false painting imitate his cheek 5
And steal dead seeing of his living hue?
Why should poor beauty indirectly seek
Roses of shadow, since his rose is true?
Why should he live, now Nature bankrupt is,
Beggar'd of blood to blush through lively veins? 10
For she hath no exchequer now but his,
And, proud of many, lives upon his gains.
    O, him she stores, to show what wealth she had
    In days long since, before these last so bad. 14


Thus is his cheek the map of days outworn,
When beauty lived and died as flowers do now,
Before the bastard signs of fair were born,
Or durst inhabit on a living brow;
Before the golden tresses of the dead, 5
The right of sepulchres, were shorn away,
To live a second life on second head;
Ere beauty's dead fleece made another gay:
In him those holy antique hours are seen,
Without all ornament, itself and true, 10
Making no summer of another's green,
Robbing no old to dress his beauty new;
    And him as for a map doth Nature store,
    To show false Art what beauty was of yore. 14

SONNET LXIX (read)69

Those parts of thee that the world's eye doth view
Want nothing that the thought of hearts can mend;
All tongues, the voice of souls, give thee that due,
Uttering bare truth, even so as foes commend.
Thy outward thus with outward praise is crown'd; 5
But those same tongues that give thee so thine own
In other accents do this praise confound
By seeing farther than the eye hath shown.
They look into the beauty of thy mind,
And that, in guess, they measure by thy deeds; 10
Then, churls, their thoughts, although their eyes were kind,
To thy fair flower add the rank smell of weeds:
    But why thy odour matcheth not thy show,
    The solve is this, that thou dost common grow. 14

SONNET LXX (read)70

That thou art blamed shall not be thy defect,
For slander's mark was ever yet the fair;
The ornament of beauty is suspect,
A crow that flies in heaven's sweetest air.
So thou be good, slander doth but approve 5
Thy worth the greater, being woo'd of time;
For canker vice the sweetest buds doth love,
And thou present'st a pure unstained prime.
Thou hast pass'd by the ambush of young days,
Either not assail'd or victor being charged; 10
Yet this thy praise cannot be so thy praise,
To tie up envy evermore enlarged:
    If some suspect of ill mask'd not thy show,
    Then thou alone kingdoms of hearts shouldst owe. 14

SONNET LXXI (read)71(read B)71-80

No longer mourn for me when I am dead
Then you shall hear the surly sullen bell
Give warning to the world that I am fled
From this vile world, with vilest worms to dwell:
Nay, if you read this line, remember not 5
The hand that writ it; for I love you so
That I in your sweet thoughts would be forgot
If thinking on me then should make you woe.
O, if, I say, you look upon this verse
When I perhaps compounded am with clay, 10
Do not so much as my poor name rehearse.
But let your love even with my life decay,
    Lest the wise world should look into your moan
    And mock you with me after I am gone. 14


O, lest the world should task you to recite
What merit lived in me, that you should love
After my death, dear love, forget me quite,
For you in me can nothing worthy prove;
Unless you would devise some virtuous lie, 5
To do more for me than mine own desert,
And hang more praise upon deceased I
Than niggard truth would willingly impart:
O, lest your true love may seem false in this,
That you for love speak well of me untrue, 10
My name be buried where my body is,
And live no more to shame nor me nor you.
    For I am shamed by that which I bring forth,
    And so should you, to love things nothing worth. 14


That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.
In me thou seest the twilight of such day 5
As after sunset fadeth in the west,
Which by and by black night doth take away,
Death's second self, that seals up all in rest.
In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie, 10
As the death-bed whereon it must expire
Consumed with that which it was nourish'd by.
    This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong,
    To love that well which thou must leave ere long. 14


But be contented: when that fell arrest
Without all bail shall carry me away,
My life hath in this line some interest,
Which for memorial still with thee shall stay.
When thou reviewest this, thou dost review 5
The very part was consecrate to thee:
The earth can have but earth, which is his due;
My spirit is thine, the better part of me:
So then thou hast but lost the dregs of life,
The prey of worms, my body being dead, 10
The coward conquest of a wretch's knife,
Too base of thee to be remembered.
    The worth of that is that which it contains,
    And that is this, and this with thee remains. 14

SONNET LXXV (read)75

So are you to my thoughts as food to life,
Or as sweet-season'd showers are to the ground;
And for the peace of you I hold such strife
As 'twixt a miser and his wealth is found;
Now proud as an enjoyer and anon 5
Doubting the filching age will steal his treasure,
Now counting best to be with you alone,
Then better'd that the world may see my pleasure;
Sometime all full with feasting on your sight
And by and by clean starved for a look; 10
Possessing or pursuing no delight,
Save what is had or must from you be took.
    Thus do I pine and surfeit day by day,
    Or gluttoning on all, or all away. 14


Why is my verse so barren of new pride,
So far from variation or quick change?
Why with the time do I not glance aside
To new-found methods and to compounds strange?
Why write I still all one, ever the same, 5
And keep invention in a noted weed,
That every word doth almost tell my name,
Showing their birth and where they did proceed?
O, know, sweet love, I always write of you,
And you and love are still my argument; 10
So all my best is dressing old words new,
Spending again what is already spent:
    For as the sun is daily new and old,
    So is my love still telling what is told. 14


Thy glass will show thee how thy beauties wear,
Thy dial how thy precious minutes waste;
The vacant leaves thy mind's imprint will bear,
And of this book this learning mayst thou taste.
The wrinkles which thy glass will truly show 5
Of mouthed graves will give thee memory;
Thou by thy dial's shady stealth mayst know
Time's thievish progress to eternity.
Look, what thy memory can not contain
Commit to these waste blanks, and thou shalt find 10
Those children nursed, deliver'd from thy brain,
To take a new acquaintance of thy mind.
    These offices, so oft as thou wilt look,
    Shall profit thee and much enrich thy book. 14


So oft have I invoked thee for my Muse
And found such fair assistance in my verse
As every alien pen hath got my use
And under thee their poesy disperse.
Thine eyes that taught the dumb on high to sing 5
And heavy ignorance aloft to fly
Have added feathers to the learned's wing
And given grace a double majesty.
Yet be most proud of that which I compile,
Whose influence is thine and born of thee: 10
In others' works thou dost but mend the style,
And arts with thy sweet graces graced be;
    But thou art all my art and dost advance
    As high as learning my rude ignorance. 14


Whilst I alone did call upon thy aid,
My verse alone had all thy gentle grace,
But now my gracious numbers are decay'd
And my sick Muse doth give another place.
I grant, sweet love, thy lovely argument 5
Deserves the travail of a worthier pen,
Yet what of thee thy poet doth invent
He robs thee of and pays it thee again.
He lends thee virtue and he stole that word
From thy behavior; beauty doth he give 10
And found it in thy cheek; he can afford
No praise to thee but what in thee doth live.
    Then thank him not for that which he doth say,
    Since what he owes thee thou thyself dost pay. 14

SONNET LXXX (read)80

O, how I faint when I of you do write,
Knowing a better spirit doth use your name,
And in the praise thereof spends all his might,
To make me tongue-tied, speaking of your fame!
But since your worth, wide as the ocean is, 5
The humble as the proudest sail doth bear,
My saucy bark inferior far to his
On your broad main doth wilfully appear.
Your shallowest help will hold me up afloat,
Whilst he upon your soundless deep doth ride; 10
Or being wreck'd, I am a worthless boat,
He of tall building and of goodly pride:
    Then if he thrive and I be cast away,
    The worst was this; my love was my decay. 14

SONNET LXXXI (read)81(read B)81-90

Or I shall live your epitaph to make,
Or you survive when I in earth am rotten;
From hence your memory death cannot take,
Although in me each part will be forgotten.
Your name from hence immortal life shall have, 5
Though I, once gone, to all the world must die:
The earth can yield me but a common grave,
When you entombed in men's eyes shall lie.
Your monument shall be my gentle verse,
Which eyes not yet created shall o'er-read, 10
And tongues to be your being shall rehearse
When all the breathers of this world are dead;
    You still shall live--such virtue hath my pen--
    Where breath most breathes, even in the mouths of men. 14


I grant thou wert not married to my Muse
And therefore mayst without attaint o'erlook
The dedicated words which writers use
Of their fair subject, blessing every book
Thou art as fair in knowledge as in hue, 5
Finding thy worth a limit past my praise,
And therefore art enforced to seek anew
Some fresher stamp of the time-bettering days
And do so, love; yet when they have devised
What strained touches rhetoric can lend, 10
Thou truly fair wert truly sympathized
In true plain words by thy true-telling friend;
    And their gross painting might be better used
    Where cheeks need blood; in thee it is abused. 14


I never saw that you did painting need
And therefore to your fair no painting set;
I found, or thought I found, you did exceed
The barren tender of a poet's debt;
And therefore have I slept in your report, 5
That you yourself being extant well might show
How far a modern quill doth come too short,
Speaking of worth, what worth in you doth grow.
This silence for my sin you did impute,
Which shall be most my glory, being dumb; 10
For I impair not beauty being mute,
When others would give life and bring a tomb.
    There lives more life in one of your fair eyes
    Than both your poets can in praise devise. 14


Who is it that says most? which can say more
Than this rich praise, that you alone are you?
In whose confine immured is the store
Which should example where your equal grew.
Lean penury within that pen doth dwell 5
That to his subject lends not some small glory;
But he that writes of you, if he can tell
That you are you, so dignifies his story,
Let him but copy what in you is writ,
Not making worse what nature made so clear, 10
And such a counterpart shall fame his wit,
Making his style admired every where.
    You to your beauteous blessings add a curse,
    Being fond on praise, which makes your praises worse. 14


My tongue-tied Muse in manners holds her still,
While comments of your praise, richly compiled,
Reserve their character with golden quill
And precious phrase by all the Muses filed.
I think good thoughts whilst other write good words, 5
And like unletter'd clerk still cry 'Amen'
To every hymn that able spirit affords
In polish'd form of well-refined pen.
Hearing you praised, I say 'Tis so, 'tis true,'
And to the most of praise add something more; 10
But that is in my thought, whose love to you,
Though words come hindmost, holds his rank before.
    Then others for the breath of words respect,
    Me for my dumb thoughts, speaking in effect. 14


Was it the proud full sail of his great verse,
Bound for the prize of all too precious you,
That did my ripe thoughts in my brain inhearse,
Making their tomb the womb wherein they grew?
Was it his spirit, by spirits taught to write 5
Above a mortal pitch, that struck me dead?
No, neither he, nor his compeers by night
Giving him aid, my verse astonished.
He, nor that affable familiar ghost
Which nightly gulls him with intelligence 10
As victors of my silence cannot boast;
I was not sick of any fear from thence:
    But when your countenance fill'd up his line,
    Then lack'd I matter; that enfeebled mine. 14


Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing,
And like enough thou know'st thy estimate:
The charter of thy worth gives thee releasing;
My bonds in thee are all determinate.
For how do I hold thee but by thy granting? 5
And for that riches where is my deserving?
The cause of this fair gift in me is wanting,
And so my patent back again is swerving.
Thyself thou gavest, thy own worth then not knowing,
Or me, to whom thou gavest it, else mistaking; 10
So thy great gift, upon misprision growing,
Comes home again, on better judgment making.
    Thus have I had thee, as a dream doth flatter,
    In sleep a king, but waking no such matter. 14


When thou shalt be disposed to set me light,
And place my merit in the eye of scorn,
Upon thy side against myself I'll fight,
And prove thee virtuous, though thou art forsworn.
With mine own weakness being best acquainted, 5
Upon thy part I can set down a story
Of faults conceal'd, wherein I am attainted,
That thou in losing me shalt win much glory:
And I by this will be a gainer too;
For bending all my loving thoughts on thee, 10
The injuries that to myself I do,
Doing thee vantage, double-vantage me.
    Such is my love, to thee I so belong,
    That for thy right myself will bear all wrong. 14


Say that thou didst forsake me for some fault,
And I will comment upon that offence;
Speak of my lameness, and I straight will halt,
Against thy reasons making no defence.
Thou canst not, love, disgrace me half so ill, 5
To set a form upon desired change,
As I'll myself disgrace: knowing thy will,
I will acquaintance strangle and look strange,
Be absent from thy walks, and in my tongue
Thy sweet beloved name no more shall dwell, 10
Lest I, too much profane, should do it wrong
And haply of our old acquaintance tell.
    For thee against myself I'll vow debate,
    For I must ne'er love him whom thou dost hate. 14

SONNET XC (read)90

Then hate me when thou wilt; if ever, now;
Now, while the world is bent my deeds to cross,
Join with the spite of fortune, make me bow,
And do not drop in for an after-loss:
Ah, do not, when my heart hath 'scoped this sorrow, 5
Come in the rearward of a conquer'd woe;
Give not a windy night a rainy morrow,
To linger out a purposed overthrow.
If thou wilt leave me, do not leave me last,
When other petty griefs have done their spite 10
But in the onset come; so shall I taste
At first the very worst of fortune's might,
    And other strains of woe, which now seem woe,
    Compared with loss of thee will not seem so. 14

SONNET XCI (read)91(read B)91-100

Some glory in their birth, some in their skill,
Some in their wealth, some in their bodies' force,
Some in their garments, though new-fangled ill,
Some in their hawks and hounds, some in their horse;
And every humour hath his adjunct pleasure, 5
Wherein it finds a joy above the rest:
But these particulars are not my measure;
All these I better in one general best.
Thy love is better than high birth to me,
Richer than wealth, prouder than garments' cost, 10
Of more delight than hawks or horses be;
And having thee, of all men's pride I boast:
    Wretched in this alone, that thou mayst take
    All this away and me most wretched make. 14

SONNET XCII (read)92

But do thy worst to steal thyself away,
For term of life thou art assured mine,
And life no longer than thy love will stay,
For it depends upon that love of thine.
Then need I not to fear the worst of wrongs, 5
When in the least of them my life hath end.
I see a better state to me belongs
Than that which on thy humour doth depend;
Thou canst not vex me with inconstant mind,
Since that my life on thy revolt doth lie. 10
O, what a happy title do I find,
Happy to have thy love, happy to die!
    But what's so blessed-fair that fears no blot?
    Thou mayst be false, and yet I know it not. 14


So shall I live, supposing thou art true,
Like a deceived husband; so love's face
May still seem love to me, though alter'd new;
Thy looks with me, thy heart in other place:
For there can live no hatred in thine eye, 5
Therefore in that I cannot know thy change.
In many's looks the false heart's history
Is writ in moods and frowns and wrinkles strange,
But heaven in thy creation did decree
That in thy face sweet love should ever dwell; 10
Whate'er thy thoughts or thy heart's workings be,
Thy looks should nothing thence but sweetness tell.
    How like Eve's apple doth thy beauty grow,
    if thy sweet virtue answer not thy show! 14

SONNET XCIV (read)94

They that have power to hurt and will do none,
That do not do the thing they most do show,
Who, moving others, are themselves as stone,
Unmoved, cold, and to temptation slow,
They rightly do inherit heaven's graces 5
And husband nature's riches from expense;
They are the lords and owners of their faces,
Others but stewards of their excellence.
The summer's flower is to the summer sweet,
Though to itself it only live and die, 10
But if that flower with base infection meet,
The basest weed outbraves his dignity:
    For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;
    Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds. 14

SONNET XCV (read)95

How sweet and lovely dost thou make the shame
Which, like a canker in the fragrant rose,
Doth spot the beauty of thy budding name!
O, in what sweets dost thou thy sins enclose!
That tongue that tells the story of thy days, 5
Making lascivious comments on thy sport,
Cannot dispraise but in a kind of praise;
Naming thy name blesses an ill report.
O, what a mansion have those vices got
Which for their habitation chose out thee, 10
Where beauty's veil doth cover every blot,
And all things turn to fair that eyes can see!
    Take heed, dear heart, of this large privilege;
    The hardest knife ill-used doth lose his edge. 14

SONNET XCVI (read)96

Some say thy fault is youth, some wantonness;
Some say thy grace is youth and gentle sport;
Both grace and faults are loved of more and less;
Thou makest faults graces that to thee resort.
As on the finger of a throned queen 5
The basest jewel will be well esteem'd,
So are those errors that in thee are seen
To truths translated and for true things deem'd.
How many lambs might the stem wolf betray,
If like a lamb he could his looks translate! 10
How many gazers mightst thou lead away,
If thou wouldst use the strength of all thy state!
    But do not so; I love thee in such sort
    As, thou being mine, mine is thy good report. 14


How like a winter hath my absence been
From thee, the pleasure of the fleeting year!
What freezings have I felt, what dark days seen!
What old December's bareness every where!
And yet this time removed was summer's time, 5
The teeming autumn, big with rich increase,
Bearing the wanton burden of the prime,
Like widow'd wombs after their lords' decease:
Yet this abundant issue seem'd to me
But hope of orphans and unfather'd fruit; 10
For summer and his pleasures wait on thee,
And, thou away, the very birds are mute;
    Or, if they sing, 'tis with so dull a cheer
    That leaves look pale, dreading the winter's near. 14


From you have I been absent in the spring,
When proud-pied April dress'd in all his trim
Hath put a spirit of youth in every thing,
That heavy Saturn laugh'd and leap'd with him.
Yet nor the lays of birds nor the sweet smell 5
Of different flowers in odour and in hue
Could make me any summer's story tell,
Or from their proud lap pluck them where they grew;
Nor did I wonder at the lily's white,
Nor praise the deep vermilion in the rose; 10
They were but sweet, but figures of delight,
Drawn after you, you pattern of all those.
    Yet seem'd it winter still, and, you away,
    As with your shadow I with these did play: 14

SONNET XCIX (read)99

The forward violet thus did I chide:
Sweet thief, whence didst thou steal thy sweet that smells,
If not from my love's breath? The purple pride
Which on thy soft cheek for complexion dwells
In my love's veins thou hast too grossly dyed. 5
The lily I condemned for thy hand,
And buds of marjoram had stol'n thy hair:
The roses fearfully on thorns did stand,
One blushing shame, another white despair;
A third, nor red nor white, had stol'n of both 10
And to his robbery had annex'd thy breath;
But, for his theft, in pride of all his growth
A vengeful canker eat him up to death.
    More flowers I noted, yet I none could see
    But sweet or colour it had stol'n from thee. 15

SONNET C (read)100

Where art thou, Muse, that thou forget'st so long
To speak of that which gives thee all thy might?
Spend'st thou thy fury on some worthless song,
Darkening thy power to lend base subjects light?
Return, forgetful Muse, and straight redeem 5
In gentle numbers time so idly spent;
Sing to the ear that doth thy lays esteem
And gives thy pen both skill and argument.
Rise, resty Muse, my love's sweet face survey,
If Time have any wrinkle graven there; 10
If any, be a satire to decay,
And make Time's spoils despised every where.
    Give my love fame faster than Time wastes life;
    So thou prevent'st his scythe and crooked knife. 14

SONNET CI (read)101(read B)101-110

O truant Muse, what shall be thy amends
For thy neglect of truth in beauty dyed?
Both truth and beauty on my love depends;
So dost thou too, and therein dignified.
Make answer, Muse: wilt thou not haply say 5
'Truth needs no colour, with his colour fix'd;
Beauty no pencil, beauty's truth to lay;
But best is best, if never intermix'd?'
Because he needs no praise, wilt thou be dumb?
Excuse not silence so; for't lies in thee 10
To make him much outlive a gilded tomb,
And to be praised of ages yet to be.
    Then do thy office, Muse; I teach thee how
    To make him seem long hence as he shows now. 14

SONNET CII (read)102

My love is strengthen'd, though more weak in seeming;
I love not less, though less the show appear:
That love is merchandized whose rich esteeming
The owner's tongue doth publish every where.
Our love was new and then but in the spring 5
When I was wont to greet it with my lays,
As Philomel in summer's front doth sing
And stops her pipe in growth of riper days:
Not that the summer is less pleasant now
Than when her mournful hymns did hush the night, 10
But that wild music burthens every bough
And sweets grown common lose their dear delight.
    Therefore like her I sometime hold my tongue,
    Because I would not dull you with my song. 14

SONNET CIII (read)103

Alack, what poverty my Muse brings forth,
That having such a scope to show her pride,
The argument all bare is of more worth
Than when it hath my added praise beside!
O, blame me not, if I no more can write! 5
Look in your glass, and there appears a face
That over-goes my blunt invention quite,
Dulling my lines and doing me disgrace.
Were it not sinful then, striving to mend,
To mar the subject that before was well? 10
For to no other pass my verses tend
Than of your graces and your gifts to tell;
    And more, much more, than in my verse can sit
    Your own glass shows you when you look in it. 14

SONNET CIV (read)104

To me, fair friend, you never can be old,
For as you were when first your eye I eyed,
Such seems your beauty still. Three winters cold
Have from the forests shook three summers' pride,
Three beauteous springs to yellow autumn turn'd 5
In process of the seasons have I seen,
Three April perfumes in three hot Junes burn'd,
Since first I saw you fresh, which yet are green.
Ah! yet doth beauty, like a dial-hand,
Steal from his figure and no pace perceived; 10
So your sweet hue, which methinks still doth stand,
Hath motion and mine eye may be deceived:
    For fear of which, hear this, thou age unbred;
    Ere you were born was beauty's summer dead. 14

SONNET CV (read)105

Let not my love be call'd idolatry,
Nor my beloved as an idol show,
Since all alike my songs and praises be
To one, of one, still such, and ever so.
Kind is my love to-day, to-morrow kind, 5
Still constant in a wondrous excellence;
Therefore my verse to constancy confined,
One thing expressing, leaves out difference.
'Fair, kind and true' is all my argument,
'Fair, kind, and true' varying to other words; 10
And in this change is my invention spent,
Three themes in one, which wondrous scope affords.
    'Fair, kind, and true,' have often lived alone,
    Which three till now never kept seat in one. 14

SONNET CVI (read)106

When in the chronicle of wasted time
I see descriptions of the fairest wights,
And beauty making beautiful old rhyme
In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights,
Then, in the blazon of sweet beauty's best, 5
Of hand, of foot, of lip, of eye, of brow,
I see their antique pen would have express'd
Even such a beauty as you master now.
So all their praises are but prophecies
Of this our time, all you prefiguring; 10
And, for they look'd but with divining eyes,
They had not skill enough your worth to sing:
    For we, which now behold these present days,
    Had eyes to wonder, but lack tongues to praise. 14

SONNET CVII (read)107

Not mine own fears, nor the prophetic soul
Of the wide world dreaming on things to come,
Can yet the lease of my true love control,
Supposed as forfeit to a confined doom.
The mortal moon hath her eclipse endured 5
And the sad augurs mock their own presage;
Incertainties now crown themselves assured
And peace proclaims olives of endless age.
Now with the drops of this most balmy time
My love looks fresh, and death to me subscribes, 10
Since, spite of him, I'll live in this poor rhyme,
While he insults o'er dull and speechless tribes:
    And thou in this shalt find thy monument,
    When tyrants' crests and tombs of brass are spent. 14

SONNET CVIII (read)108

What's in the brain that ink may character
Which hath not figured to thee my true spirit?
What's new to speak, what new to register,
That may express my love or thy dear merit?
Nothing, sweet boy; but yet, like prayers divine, 5
I must, each day say o'er the very same,
Counting no old thing old, thou mine, I thine,
Even as when first I hallow'd thy fair name.
So that eternal love in love's fresh case
Weighs not the dust and injury of age, 10
Nor gives to necessary wrinkles place,
But makes antiquity for aye his page,
    Finding the first conceit of love there bred
    Where time and outward form would show it dead. 14

SONNET CIX (read)109

O, never say that I was false of heart,
Though absence seem'd my flame to qualify.
As easy might I from myself depart
As from my soul, which in thy breast doth lie:
That is my home of love: if I have ranged, 5
Like him that travels I return again,
Just to the time, not with the time exchanged,
So that myself bring water for my stain.
Never believe, though in my nature reign'd
All frailties that besiege all kinds of blood, 10
That it could so preposterously be stain'd,
To leave for nothing all thy sum of good;
    For nothing this wide universe I call,
    Save thou, my rose; in it thou art my all. 14

SONNET CX (read)110

Alas, 'tis true I have gone here and there
And made myself a motley to the view,
Gored mine own thoughts, sold cheap what is most dear,
Made old offences of affections new;
Most true it is that I have look'd on truth 5
Askance and strangely: but, by all above,
These blenches gave my heart another youth,
And worse essays proved thee my best of love.
Now all is done, have what shall have no end:
Mine appetite I never more will grind 10
On newer proof, to try an older friend,
A god in love, to whom I am confined.
    Then give me welcome, next my heaven the best,
    Even to thy pure and most most loving breast. 14

SONNET CXI (read)111(read B)111-121

O, for my sake do you with Fortune chide,
The guilty goddess of my harmful deeds,
That did not better for my life provide
Than public means which public manners breeds.
Thence comes it that my name receives a brand, 5
And almost thence my nature is subdued
To what it works in, like the dyer's hand:
Pity me then and wish I were renew'd;
Whilst, like a willing patient, I will drink
Potions of eisel 'gainst my strong infection 10
No bitterness that I will bitter think,
Nor double penance, to correct correction.
    Pity me then, dear friend, and I assure ye
    Even that your pity is enough to cure me. 14

SONNET CXII (read)112

Your love and pity doth the impression fill
Which vulgar scandal stamp'd upon my brow;
For what care I who calls me well or ill,
So you o'er-green my bad, my good allow?
You are my all the world, and I must strive 5
To know my shames and praises from your tongue:
None else to me, nor I to none alive,
That my steel'd sense or changes right or wrong.
In so profound abysm I throw all care
Of others' voices, that my adder's sense 10
To critic and to flatterer stopped are.
Mark how with my neglect I do dispense:
    You are so strongly in my purpose bred
    That all the world besides methinks are dead. 14

SONNET CXIII (read)113

Since I left you, mine eye is in my mind;
And that which governs me to go about
Doth part his function and is partly blind,
Seems seeing, but effectually is out;
For it no form delivers to the heart 5
Of bird of flower, or shape, which it doth latch:
Of his quick objects hath the mind no part,
Nor his own vision holds what it doth catch:
For if it see the rudest or gentlest sight,
The most sweet favour or deformed'st creature, 10
The mountain or the sea, the day or night,
The crow or dove, it shapes them to your feature:
    Incapable of more, replete with you,
    My most true mind thus makes mine eye untrue. 14

SONNET CXIV (read)114

Or whether doth my mind, being crown'd with you,
Drink up the monarch's plague, this flattery?
Or whether shall I say, mine eye saith true,
And that your love taught it this alchemy,
To make of monsters and things indigest 5
Such cherubins as your sweet self resemble,
Creating every bad a perfect best,
As fast as objects to his beams assemble?
O,'tis the first; 'tis flattery in my seeing,
And my great mind most kingly drinks it up: 10
Mine eye well knows what with his gust is 'greeing,
And to his palate doth prepare the cup:
    If it be poison'd, 'tis the lesser sin
    That mine eye loves it and doth first begin. 14

SONNET CXV (read)115

Those lines that I before have writ do lie,
Even those that said I could not love you dearer:
Yet then my judgment knew no reason why
My most full flame should afterwards burn clearer.
But reckoning time, whose million'd accidents 5
Creep in 'twixt vows and change decrees of kings,
Tan sacred beauty, blunt the sharp'st intents,
Divert strong minds to the course of altering things;
Alas, why, fearing of time's tyranny,
Might I not then say 'Now I love you best,' 10
When I was certain o'er incertainty,
Crowning the present, doubting of the rest?
    Love is a babe; then might I not say so,
    To give full growth to that which still doth grow? 14

SONNET CXVI (read)116

Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:
O no! it is an ever-fixed mark 5
That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.
Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle's compass come: 10
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
    If this be error and upon me proved,
    I never writ, nor no man ever loved. 14

SONNET CXVII (read)117

Accuse me thus: that I have scanted all
Wherein I should your great deserts repay,
Forgot upon your dearest love to call,
Whereto all bonds do tie me day by day;
That I have frequent been with unknown minds 5
And given to time your own dear-purchased right
That I have hoisted sail to all the winds
Which should transport me farthest from your sight.
Book both my wilfulness and errors down
And on just proof surmise accumulate; 10
Bring me within the level of your frown,
But shoot not at me in your waken'd hate;
    Since my appeal says I did strive to prove
    The constancy and virtue of your love. 14


Like as, to make our appetites more keen,
With eager compounds we our palate urge,
As, to prevent our maladies unseen,
We sicken to shun sickness when we purge,
Even so, being tuff of your ne'er-cloying sweetness, 5
To bitter sauces did I frame my feeding
And, sick of welfare, found a kind of meetness
To be diseased ere that there was true needing.
Thus policy in love, to anticipate
The ills that were not, grew to faults assured 10
And brought to medicine a healthful state
Which, rank of goodness, would by ill be cured:
    But thence I learn, and find the lesson true,
    Drugs poison him that so fell sick of you. 14

SONNET CXIX (read)119

What potions have I drunk of Siren tears,
Distill'd from limbecks foul as hell within,
Applying fears to hopes and hopes to fears,
Still losing when I saw myself to win!
What wretched errors hath my heart committed, 5
Whilst it hath thought itself so blessed never!
How have mine eyes out of their spheres been fitted
In the distraction of this madding fever!
O benefit of ill! now I find true
That better is by evil still made better; 10
And ruin'd love, when it is built anew,
Grows fairer than at first, more strong, far greater.
    So I return rebuked to my content
    And gain by ill thrice more than I have spent. 14

SONNET CXX (read)120

That you were once unkind befriends me now,
And for that sorrow which I then did feel
Needs must I under my transgression bow,
Unless my nerves were brass or hammer'd steel.
For if you were by my unkindness shaken 5
As I by yours, you've pass'd a hell of time,
And I, a tyrant, have no leisure taken
To weigh how once I suffered in your crime.
O, that our night of woe might have remember'd
My deepest sense, how hard true sorrow hits, 10
And soon to you, as you to me, then tender'd
The humble slave which wounded bosoms fits!
    But that your trespass now becomes a fee;
    Mine ransoms yours, and yours must ransom me. 14

SONNET CXXI (read)121(read B)121-131

'Tis better to be vile than vile esteem'd,
When not to be receives reproach of being,
And the just pleasure lost which is so deem'd
Not by our feeling but by others' seeing:
For why should others false adulterate eyes 5
Give salutation to my sportive blood?
Or on my frailties why are frailer spies,
Which in their wills count bad what I think good?
No, I am that I am, and they that level
At my abuses reckon up their own: 10
I may be straight, though they themselves be bevel;
By their rank thoughts my deeds must not be shown;
    Unless this general evil they maintain,
    All men are bad, and in their badness reign. 14

SONNET CXXII (read)122

Thy gift, thy tables, are within my brain
Full character'd with lasting memory,
Which shall above that idle rank remain
Beyond all date, even to eternity;
Or at the least, so long as brain and heart 5
Have faculty by nature to subsist;
Till each to razed oblivion yield his part
Of thee, thy record never can be miss'd.
That poor retention could not so much hold,
Nor need I tallies thy dear love to score; 10
Therefore to give them from me was I bold,
To trust those tables that receive thee more:
    To keep an adjunct to remember thee
    Were to import forgetfulness in me. 14


No, Time, thou shalt not boast that I do change:
Thy pyramids built up with newer might
To me are nothing novel, nothing strange;
They are but dressings of a former sight.
Our dates are brief, and therefore we admire 5
What thou dost foist upon us that is old,
And rather make them born to our desire
Than think that we before have heard them told.
Thy registers and thee I both defy,
Not wondering at the present nor the past, 10
For thy records and what we see doth lie,
Made more or less by thy continual haste.
    This I do vow and this shall ever be;
    I will be true, despite thy scythe and thee. 14

SONNET CXXIV (read)124

If my dear love were but the child of state,
It might for Fortune's bastard be unfather'd'
As subject to Time's love or to Time's hate,
Weeds among weeds, or flowers with flowers gather'd.
No, it was builded far from accident; 5
It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls
Under the blow of thralled discontent,
Whereto the inviting time our fashion calls:
It fears not policy, that heretic,
Which works on leases of short-number'd hours, 10
But all alone stands hugely politic,
That it nor grows with heat nor drowns with showers.
    To this I witness call the fools of time,
    Which die for goodness, who have lived for crime. 14

SONNET CXXV (read)125

Were 't aught to me I bore the canopy,
With my extern the outward honouring,
Or laid great bases for eternity,
Which prove more short than waste or ruining?
Have I not seen dwellers on form and favour 5
Lose all, and more, by paying too much rent,
For compound sweet forgoing simple savour,
Pitiful thrivers, in their gazing spent?
No, let me be obsequious in thy heart,
And take thou my oblation, poor but free, 10
Which is not mix'd with seconds, knows no art,
But mutual render, only me for thee.
    Hence, thou suborn'd informer! a true soul
    When most impeach'd stands least in thy control. 14

SONNET CXXVI (read)126

O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power
Dost hold Time's fickle glass, his sickle, hour;
Who hast by waning grown, and therein show'st
Thy lovers withering as thy sweet self grow'st;
If Nature, sovereign mistress over wrack, 5
As thou goest onwards, still will pluck thee back,
She keeps thee to this purpose, that her skill
May time disgrace and wretched minutes kill.
Yet fear her, O thou minion of her pleasure!
She may detain, but not still keep, her treasure: 10
Her audit, though delay'd, answer'd must be,
And her quietus is to render thee.
    (    )
    (    ) 14


In the old age black was not counted fair,
Or if it were, it bore not beauty's name;
But now is black beauty's successive heir,
And beauty slander'd with a bastard shame:
For since each hand hath put on nature's power, 5
Fairing the foul with art's false borrow'd face,
Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bower,
But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace.
Therefore my mistress' brows are raven black,
Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem 10
At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack,
Slandering creation with a false esteem:
    Yet so they mourn, becoming of their woe,
    That every tongue says beauty should look so. 14


How oft, when thou, my music, music play'st,
Upon that blessed wood whose motion sounds
With thy sweet fingers, when thou gently sway'st
The wiry concord that mine ear confounds,
Do I envy those jacks that nimble leap 5
To kiss the tender inward of thy hand,
Whilst my poor lips, which should that harvest reap,
At the wood's boldness by thee blushing stand!
To be so tickled, they would change their state
And situation with those dancing chips, 10
O'er whom thy fingers walk with gentle gait,
Making dead wood more blest than living lips.
    Since saucy jacks so happy are in this,
    Give them thy fingers, me thy lips to kiss. 14

SONNET CXXIX (read)129

The expense of spirit in a waste of shame
Is lust in action; and till action, lust
Is perjured, murderous, bloody, full of blame,
Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust,
Enjoy'd no sooner but despised straight, 5
Past reason hunted, and no sooner had
Past reason hated, as a swallow'd bait
On purpose laid to make the taker mad;
Mad in pursuit and in possession so;
Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme; 10
A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe;
Before, a joy proposed; behind, a dream.
    All this the world well knows; yet none knows well
    To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. 14

SONNET CXXX (read)130

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damask'd, red and white, 5
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound; 10
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
    And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
    As any she belied with false compare. 14

SONNET CXXXI (read)131(read B)131-141

Thou art as tyrannous, so as thou art,
As those whose beauties proudly make them cruel;
For well thou know'st to my dear doting heart
Thou art the fairest and most precious jewel.
Yet, in good faith, some say that thee behold 5
Thy face hath not the power to make love groan:
To say they err I dare not be so bold,
Although I swear it to myself alone.
And, to be sure that is not false I swear,
A thousand groans, but thinking on thy face, 10
One on another's neck, do witness bear
Thy black is fairest in my judgment's place.
    In nothing art thou black save in thy deeds,
    And thence this slander, as I think, proceeds. 14


Thine eyes I love, and they, as pitying me,
Knowing thy heart torments me with disdain,
Have put on black and loving mourners be,
Looking with pretty ruth upon my pain.
And truly not the morning sun of heaven 5
Better becomes the grey cheeks of the east,
Nor that full star that ushers in the even
Doth half that glory to the sober west,
As those two mourning eyes become thy face:
O, let it then as well beseem thy heart 10
To mourn for me, since mourning doth thee grace,
And suit thy pity like in every part.
    Then will I swear beauty herself is black
    And all they foul that thy complexion lack. 14


Beshrew that heart that makes my heart to groan
For that deep wound it gives my friend and me!
Is't not enough to torture me alone,
But slave to slavery my sweet'st friend must be?
Me from myself thy cruel eye hath taken, 5
And my next self thou harder hast engross'd:
Of him, myself, and thee, I am forsaken;
A torment thrice threefold thus to be cross'd.
Prison my heart in thy steel bosom's ward,
But then my friend's heart let my poor heart bail; 10
Whoe'er keeps me, let my heart be his guard;
Thou canst not then use rigor in my gaol:
    And yet thou wilt; for I, being pent in thee,
    Perforce am thine, and all that is in me. 14


So, now I have confess'd that he is thine,
And I myself am mortgaged to thy will,
Myself I'll forfeit, so that other mine
Thou wilt restore, to be my comfort still:
But thou wilt not, nor he will not be free, 5
For thou art covetous and he is kind;
He learn'd but surety-like to write for me
Under that bond that him as fast doth bind.
The statute of thy beauty thou wilt take,
Thou usurer, that put'st forth all to use, 10
And sue a friend came debtor for my sake;
So him I lose through my unkind abuse.
    Him have I lost; thou hast both him and me:
    He pays the whole, and yet am I not free. 14

SONNET CXXXV (read)135

Whoever hath her wish, thou hast thy 'Will,'
And 'Will' to boot, and 'Will' in overplus;
More than enough am I that vex thee still,
To thy sweet will making addition thus.
Wilt thou, whose will is large and spacious, 5
Not once vouchsafe to hide my will in thine?
Shall will in others seem right gracious,
And in my will no fair acceptance shine?
The sea all water, yet receives rain still
And in abundance addeth to his store; 10
So thou, being rich in 'Will,' add to thy 'Will'
One will of mine, to make thy large 'Will' more.
    Let no unkind, no fair beseechers kill;
    Think all but one, and me in that one 'Will.' 14


If thy soul cheque thee that I come so near,
Swear to thy blind soul that I was thy 'Will,'
And will, thy soul knows, is admitted there;
Thus far for love my love-suit, sweet, fulfil.
'Will' will fulfil the treasure of thy love, 5
Ay, fill it full with wills, and my will one.
In things of great receipt with ease we prove
Among a number one is reckon'd none:
Then in the number let me pass untold,
Though in thy stores' account I one must be; 10
For nothing hold me, so it please thee hold
That nothing me, a something sweet to thee:
    Make but my name thy love, and love that still,
    And then thou lovest me, for my name is 'Will.' 14


Thou blind fool, Love, what dost thou to mine eyes,
That they behold, and see not what they see?
They know what beauty is, see where it lies,
Yet what the best is take the worst to be.
If eyes corrupt by over-partial looks 5
Be anchor'd in the bay where all men ride,
Why of eyes' falsehood hast thou forged hooks,
Whereto the judgment of my heart is tied?
Why should my heart think that a several plot
Which my heart knows the wide world's common place? 10
Or mine eyes seeing this, say this is not,
To put fair truth upon so foul a face?
    In things right true my heart and eyes have erred,
    And to this false plague are they now transferr'd. 14


When my love swears that she is made of truth
I do believe her, though I know she lies,
That she might think me some untutor'd youth,
Unlearned in the world's false subtleties.
Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, 5
Although she knows my days are past the best,
Simply I credit her false speaking tongue:
On both sides thus is simple truth suppress'd.
But wherefore says she not she is unjust?
And wherefore say not I that I am old? 10
O, love's best habit is in seeming trust,
And age in love loves not to have years told:
    Therefore I lie with her and she with me,
    And in our faults by lies we flatter'd be. 14


O, call not me to justify the wrong
That thy unkindness lays upon my heart;
Wound me not with thine eye but with thy tongue;
Use power with power and slay me not by art.
Tell me thou lovest elsewhere, but in my sight, 5
Dear heart, forbear to glance thine eye aside:
What need'st thou wound with cunning when thy might
Is more than my o'er-press'd defense can bide?
Let me excuse thee: ah! my love well knows
Her pretty looks have been mine enemies, 10
And therefore from my face she turns my foes,
That they elsewhere might dart their injuries:
    Yet do not so; but since I am near slain,
    Kill me outright with looks and rid my pain. 14

SONNET CXL (read)140

Be wise as thou art cruel; do not press
My tongue-tied patience with too much disdain;
Lest sorrow lend me words and words express
The manner of my pity-wanting pain.
If I might teach thee wit, better it were, 5
Though not to love, yet, love, to tell me so;
As testy sick men, when their deaths be near,
No news but health from their physicians know;
For if I should despair, I should grow mad,
And in my madness might speak ill of thee: 10
Now this ill-wresting world is grown so bad,
Mad slanderers by mad ears believed be,
    That I may not be so, nor thou belied,
    Bear thine eyes straight, though thy proud heart go wide. 14

SONNET CXLI (read)141(read B)141-154

In faith, I do not love thee with mine eyes,
For they in thee a thousand errors note;
But 'tis my heart that loves what they despise,
Who in despite of view is pleased to dote;
Nor are mine ears with thy tongue's tune delighted, 5
Nor tender feeling, to base touches prone,
Nor taste, nor smell, desire to be invited
To any sensual feast with thee alone:
But my five wits nor my five senses can
Dissuade one foolish heart from serving thee, 10
Who leaves unsway'd the likeness of a man,
Thy proud hearts slave and vassal wretch to be:
    Only my plague thus far I count my gain,
    That she that makes me sin awards me pain. 14

SONNET CXLII (read)142

Love is my sin and thy dear virtue hate,
Hate of my sin, grounded on sinful loving:
O, but with mine compare thou thine own state,
And thou shalt find it merits not reproving;
Or, if it do, not from those lips of thine, 5
That have profaned their scarlet ornaments
And seal'd false bonds of love as oft as mine,
Robb'd others' beds' revenues of their rents.
Be it lawful I love thee, as thou lovest those
Whom thine eyes woo as mine importune thee: 10
Root pity in thy heart, that when it grows
Thy pity may deserve to pitied be.
    If thou dost seek to have what thou dost hide,
    By self-example mayst thou be denied! 14


Lo! as a careful housewife runs to catch
One of her feather'd creatures broke away,
Sets down her babe and makes an swift dispatch
In pursuit of the thing she would have stay,
Whilst her neglected child holds her in chase, 5
Cries to catch her whose busy care is bent
To follow that which flies before her face,
Not prizing her poor infant's discontent;
So runn'st thou after that which flies from thee,
Whilst I thy babe chase thee afar behind; 10
But if thou catch thy hope, turn back to me,
And play the mother's part, kiss me, be kind:
    So will I pray that thou mayst have thy 'Will,'
    If thou turn back, and my loud crying still. 14

SONNET CXLIV (read)144

Two loves I have of comfort and despair,
Which like two spirits do suggest me still:
The better angel is a man right fair,
The worser spirit a woman colour'd ill.
To win me soon to hell, my female evil 5
Tempteth my better angel from my side,
And would corrupt my saint to be a devil,
Wooing his purity with her foul pride.
And whether that my angel be turn'd fiend
Suspect I may, but not directly tell; 10
But being both from me, both to each friend,
I guess one angel in another's hell:
    Yet this shall I ne'er know, but live in doubt,
    Till my bad angel fire my good one out. 14

SONNET CXLV (read)145

Those lips that Love's own hand did make
Breathed forth the sound that said 'I hate'
To me that languish'd for her sake;
But when she saw my woeful state,
Straight in her heart did mercy come, 5
Chiding that tongue that ever sweet
Was used in giving gentle doom,
And taught it thus anew to greet:
'I hate' she alter'd with an end,
That follow'd it as gentle day 10
Doth follow night, who like a fiend
From heaven to hell is flown away;
    'I hate' from hate away she threw,
    And saved my life, saying 'not you.' 14

SONNET CXLVI (read)146

Poor soul, the centre of my sinful earth,
[                 ] these rebel powers that thee array;
Why dost thou pine within and suffer dearth,
Painting thy outward walls so costly gay?
Why so large cost, having so short a lease, 5
Dost thou upon thy fading mansion spend?
Shall worms, inheritors of this excess,
Eat up thy charge? is this thy body's end?
Then soul, live thou upon thy servant's loss,
And let that pine to aggravate thy store; 10
Buy terms divine in selling hours of dross;
Within be fed, without be rich no more:
    So shalt thou feed on Death, that feeds on men,
    And Death once dead, there's no more dying then. 14


My love is as a fever, longing still
For that which longer nurseth the disease,
Feeding on that which doth preserve the ill,
The uncertain sickly appetite to please.
My reason, the physician to my love, 5
Angry that his prescriptions are not kept,
Hath left me, and I desperate now approve
Desire is death, which physic did except.
Past cure I am, now reason is past care,
And frantic-mad with evermore unrest; 10
My thoughts and my discourse as madmen's are,
At random from the truth vainly express'd;
    For I have sworn thee fair and thought thee bright,
    Who art as black as hell, as dark as night. 14


O me, what eyes hath Love put in my head,
Which have no correspondence with true sight!
Or, if they have, where is my judgment fled,
That censures falsely what they see aright?
If that be fair whereon my false eyes dote, 5
What means the world to say it is not so?
If it be not, then love doth well denote
Love's eye is not so true as all men's 'No.'
How can it? O, how can Love's eye be true,
That is so vex'd with watching and with tears? 10
No marvel then, though I mistake my view;
The sun itself sees not till heaven clears.
    O cunning Love! with tears thou keep'st me blind,
    Lest eyes well-seeing thy foul faults should find. 14

SONNET CXLIX (read)149

Canst thou, O cruel! say I love thee not,
When I against myself with thee partake?
Do I not think on thee, when I forgot
Am of myself, all tyrant, for thy sake?
Who hateth thee that I do call my friend? 5
On whom frown'st thou that I do fawn upon?
Nay, if thou lour'st on me, do I not spend
Revenge upon myself with present moan?
What merit do I in myself respect,
That is so proud thy service to despise, 10
When all my best doth worship thy defect,
Commanded by the motion of thine eyes?
    But, love, hate on, for now I know thy mind;
    Those that can see thou lovest, and I am blind. 14

SONNET CL (read)150

O, from what power hast thou this powerful might
With insufficiency my heart to sway?
To make me give the lie to my true sight,
And swear that brightness doth not grace the day?
Whence hast thou this becoming of things ill, 5
That in the very refuse of thy deeds
There is such strength and warrantize of skill
That, in my mind, thy worst all best exceeds?
Who taught thee how to make me love thee more
The more I hear and see just cause of hate? 10
O, though I love what others do abhor,
With others thou shouldst not abhor my state:
    If thy unworthiness raised love in me,
    More worthy I to be beloved of thee. 14

SONNET CLI (read)151

(read B)141-154

Love is too young to know what conscience is;
Yet who knows not conscience is born of love?
Then, gentle cheater, urge not my amiss,
Lest guilty of my faults thy sweet self prove:
For, thou betraying me, I do betray 5
My nobler part to my gross body's treason;
My soul doth tell my body that he may
Triumph in love; flesh stays no father reason;
But, rising at thy name, doth point out thee
As his triumphant prize. Proud of this pride, 10
He is contented thy poor drudge to be,
To stand in thy affairs, fall by thy side.
    No want of conscience hold it that I call
    Her 'love' for whose dear love I rise and fall. 14

SONNET CLII (read)152

In loving thee thou know'st I am forsworn,
But thou art twice forsworn, to me love swearing,
In act thy bed-vow broke and new faith torn,
In vowing new hate after new love bearing.
But why of two oaths' breach do I accuse thee, 5
When I break twenty? I am perjured most;
For all my vows are oaths but to misuse thee
And all my honest faith in thee is lost,
For I have sworn deep oaths of thy deep kindness,
Oaths of thy love, thy truth, thy constancy, 10
And, to enlighten thee, gave eyes to blindness,
Or made them swear against the thing they see;
    For I have sworn thee fair; more perjured I,
    To swear against the truth so foul a lie! 14

SONNET CLIII (read)153

Cupid laid by his brand, and fell asleep:
A maid of Dian's this advantage found,
And his love-kindling fire did quickly steep
In a cold valley-fountain of that ground;
Which borrow'd from this holy fire of Love 5
A dateless lively heat, still to endure,
And grew a seething bath, which yet men prove
Against strange maladies a sovereign cure.
But at my mistress' eye Love's brand new-fired,
The boy for trial needs would touch my breast; 10
I, sick withal, the help of bath desired,
And thither hied, a sad distemper'd guest,
    But found no cure: the bath for my help lies
    Where Cupid got new fire--my mistress' eyes. 14

SONNET CLIV (read)154

The little Love-god lying once asleep
Laid by his side his heart-inflaming brand,
Whilst many nymphs that vow'd chaste life to keep
Came tripping by; but in her maiden hand
The fairest votary took up that fire 5
Which many legions of true hearts had warm'd;
And so the general of hot desire
Was sleeping by a virgin hand disarm'd.
This brand she quenched in a cool well by,
Which from Love's fire took heat perpetual, 10
Growing a bath and healthful remedy
For men diseased; but I, my mistress' thrall,
    Came there for cure, and this by that I prove,
    Love's fire heats water, water cools not love. 14

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ソネット集(坪内逍遥著、中央公論社 1934年) クリック(click)してください。

[単行本] [大型本]
シェークスピア (著), Shakespeare (原著),
坪内 逍遥 (翻訳)
出版社: 第三書館; 愛蔵新版 (2007/03)


Shakespeare's sonnet (English)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110
111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130
131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150
151 152 153 154


Sonnet 001 - From fairest creatures we desire increase,
Sonnet 003 - Look in thy glass, and tell the face thou viewest
Sonnet 009 - Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye
Sonnet 012 - When I do count the clock that tells the time,
Sonnet 018 - Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Sonnet 020 - A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted
Sonnet 023 - As an unperfect actor on the stage
Sonnet 027 - Weary with toil, I haste me to my bed,
Sonnet 029 - When, in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes,
Sonnet 030 - When to the sessions of sweet silent thought
Sonnet 035 - No more be grieved at that which thou hast done:
Sonnet 038 - How can my Muse want subject to invent,
Sonnet 042 - That thou hast her, it is not all my grief,
Sonnet 043 - When most I wink, then do mine eyes best see,
Sonnet 048 - How careful was I, when I took my way,
Sonnet 055 - Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
Sonnet 060 - Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore,
Sonnet 062 - Sin of self-love possesseth all mine eye
Sonnet 063 - Against my love shall be, as I am now
Sonnet 071 - No longer mourn for me when I am dead
Sonnet 073 - That time of year thou mayst in me behold
Sonnet 076 - Why is my verse so barren of new pride,
Sonnet 081 - Or I shall live your epitaph to make,
Sonnet 087 - Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing,
Sonnet 089 - Say that thou didst forsake me for some fault,
Sonnet 091 - Some glory in their birth, some in their skill,
Sonnet 094 - They that have power to hurt and will do none,
Sonnet 098 - From you have I been absent in the spring,
Sonnet 101 - O truant Muse, what shall be thy amends
Sonnet 102 - My love is strengthen'd, though more weak in seeming;
Sonnet 106 - When in the chronicle of wasted time
Sonnet 111 - O, for my sake do you with Fortune chide,
Sonnet 116 - Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Sonnet 119 - What potions have I drunk of Siren tears,
Sonnet 121 - 'Tis better to be vile than vile esteem'd,
Sonnet 127 - If it were, it bore not beauty's name;
Sonnet 128 - Oft, when thou, my music, music play'st,
Sonnet 129 - The expense of spirit in a waste of shame
Sonnet 130 - My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Sonnet 137 - Thou blind fool, Love, what dost thou to mine eyes,
Sonnet 147 - My love is as a fever, longing still
Sonnet 154 - The little Love-god lying once asleep


Shakespeare(シェークスピア)の SONNETS(ソネット集)に関する書籍

シェイクスピアの生涯 [単行本] 結城雅秀著 (出版社: 勉誠出版 (2009/10))
裁判や訴訟に関する記録、商業的取引や不動産売買、融資締結に関する記録、 家族の宗教的背景に関する記録、当時生きていた人々の書き記した日記、記録、 手紙などの新資料を駆使し、従来のシェイクスピア像を覆す新解釈を提示する。

シェイクスピアのソネット―愛の虚構ー(全原文・全完訳)   田村 一郎 (著), 坂本 公延 (著), 六反田 収 (著), 田淵 實貴男 (著) 出版社: 文理・大学事業部 (1975/5/20)
『ソネット集』(ソネットしゅう、Shakespeare’s sonnets, またはThe Sonnets)は、ウィリアム・シェイクスピアがソネット形式で書いた詩集である。 詩のテーマは、恋愛・美・政治・死などである。おそらく数年にわたって書かれたものと思われる。 1609年にSHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS というタイトルで出版された。全154篇の詩のうち、152篇は未発表のソネットだが 2篇(ソネット138番と144番)は1599年に出版された『情熱の巡礼者』の中に含まれている。
全154篇 の原文を載せこれを明快に完訳し、さらに大意など記し詳細に述べている。

ソネット集(日本訳のみ) シェイクスピア (著), 高松 雄一 (翻訳) (岩波文庫) [文庫] (1986/11/17)
「ソネット集」は、赤裸な告白と表現上の約束事、文学的伝統とその批判、神話と現実、不変の真実と愛欲の葛藤、 真剣な主張と言いのがれや当てこすりなど、多様な階層にわたる対立と緊張をはらんだ作品である。
シェイクスピアのソネット集(原典)は、そもそも詩は韻をふむために語順はごちゃごちゃに変えるし、なかなか難しいもの である。本書はそれをわかりやすく訳したもののみ書かれ読みやすい本である。
原典の校訂版や研究書 などもよく調べてあるようで、解釈について意見のわかれるところはちゃんと 注記してある。そのほか、中世~ルネサンス期の文化的背景や、語・表現の裏 の意味まで、注もくわしく、予備知識がなくともシェイクスピアのソネットを 楽しむことが可能。

『ソネット集』(ソネットしゅう、Shakespeare’s sonnets, またはThe Sonnets)は、ウィリアム・シェイクスピアがソネット形式で3つの四行連と最後の二行連(対句)の合計十四行で構成されて書いた詩集である。 詩のテーマは、恋愛・美・政治・死などである。おそらく数年にわたって書かれたものと思われる。1609年にSHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS というタイトルで出版された。全154篇の詩のうち、152篇は未発表のソネットだが、2篇(ソネット138番と144番)は1599年に出版された『情熱の巡礼者』の中に含まれている。
〇ソネット1番〜17番「 『ソネット集』の最初の17篇(1番から17番)は若い男性(「美男子(Fair Youth)」と呼ばれることが多い)に向けて、早く結婚して子を作り[3]、その美貌を次の世代に継がせるよう書いている。これらは「Procreation sonnets(子作りのソネット)」と呼ばれている。 」
〇ソネット18番〜126番「 ソネット18番から126番まで、つまり『ソネット集』の大部分は、さきほどの美男子に対する作者の愛が歌われている。 」
〇ソネット127番〜152番「 ソネット127番から152番は、「The Dark Lady(ダーク・レディ、黒い女)」と呼ばれる作者の愛人への愛が歌われている。 」
〇ソネット153番〜154番「 最後の2篇(153番と154番)は寓話的である。」

ザ・シェークスピア―全戯曲(全原文+全訳)全一冊 [単行本] [大型本] シェークスピア (著), Shakespeare (原著), 坪内 逍遥 (翻訳) 出版社: 第三書館; 愛蔵新版 (2007/03)

シェイクスピア ヴィジュアル事典 [単行本] Leslie Dunton=Downer (原著), Alan Riding (原著), 水谷 八也 (翻訳), 水谷 利美 (翻訳) (出版社: 新樹社 (2006/02))
ウィリアム・シェイクスピアの生涯と作品のすべてが手軽にわかるガイド。 まず最初に、ウィリアム・シェイクスピアの生涯、作品、時代を、伝記、文化、歴史、文学の点から論じる。 また、エリザベス朝とジェイムズ朝の演劇界の動きと、 韻文、散文、韻律など文学用語も解説。「作品」編では、シェイクスピアの全戯曲39篇を4ジャンルに分類し、 年代順に取り上げ、「詩」の部は、戯曲以外の作品(物語詩・抒情詩)に当てている。
シェイクスピアの生涯と彼が生きたいきいきとした時代にふれる。彼を批評しあるいは後援した者から、 同時代のライバルまで、エリザベス朝とジェイムズ朝の演劇ブームの実態を描く。 全39篇の戯曲を取りあげ、あらすじを述べると共に要点は詳しく解説。また演劇界と映画界それぞれで採用されたさまざまな解釈を紹介する。 詩人シェイクスピアの創作したソネット集と物語詩の解説がたっぷり。シェイクスピアの魅力は、 独特の言語を含む彼のユニークな発想であり、何百年たっても古びない新鮮さである。いつの世も、国が違っても、世代を越え、 人々の心を捕えて離さない戯曲の秘密をさぐる。

研究社 シェイクスピア辞典 [単行本] 高橋 康也 (編集), 喜志 哲雄 (編集), 大場 建治 (編集), 村上 淑郎 (編集) 出版社: 研究社出版 (2000/11)

シェイクスピア大事典 [大型本] 荒井 良雄, 大場 建治, 川崎 淳之助 出版社: 日本図書センター (2002/10) 出版社: 日本図書センター (2002/10)
読みとりやすい大項目の編集。和文と英文の詳細な索引を装備。多ジャンルより多くの図版をグラフィックに掲載した最新の総合百科。 シェイクスピアを巨大なひとつの文化現象としてとらえ、その現象をめぐる厖大な情報を過不足なく体系化した百科事典方式の事典。シェイクスピアについての知のすべてを、シェイクスピア周辺の文化現象も含めて解説する。

シェイクスピアを追え!(消えたファースト・フォリオ本の行方 ) エリック・ラスムッセン著 安達まみ訳 2014年2月21日
1623年に初のシェイクスピア全集として刊行され,21世紀にいたって6億円で落札された世界でもっとも高額な書物,ファースト・フォリオ.このコレクター垂涎の稀書が, 400年の間にたどってきた数奇な運命をめぐるエピソード集.富豪,泥棒,愚者,変人,フォリオの魅力にとり憑かれ,人生を翻弄された人々の悲劇と喜劇.


Copyright(c) 2014: ぷらっとさんぽ(-Prattosampo-)  江守孝三(Emori Kozo)

[Shakespeare’s sonnetst_Top]


ソネット集(ソネットしゅう、Shakespeare’s sonnets)の概要

出典: 百科事典

    『ソネット集』(ソネットしゅう、Shakespeare’s sonnets, またはThe Sonnets)は、ウィリアム・シェイクスピアソネット形式で書いた詩集である。

詩のテーマは、恋愛・美・政治・死などである。おそらく数年にわたって書かれたものと思われる。1609年SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS というタイトルで出版された。全154篇の詩のうち、152篇は未発表のソネットだが、2篇(ソネット138番と144番)は1599年に出版された『情熱の巡礼者』の中に含まれている。


『ソネット集』がどのような経緯で出版されたかははっきりしない。書いたのはシェイクスピアだが、出版者のトマス・ソープThomas Thorpe)がシェイクスピアから渡された手書きの原稿を使ったのか、コピーされたものを許可無く使ったのかはわからない。(ちなみにトマス・ソープがこの本を書籍出版業組合記録に登録したのは1609年5月20日のことである[1])。




本の最初に謎めいた「献辞」がある。トマス・ソープはこの詩の「the onlie begetter(唯一の生みの親)」を「Mr. W.H.(W・H氏)」としているが、これが誰のことなのかは不明である。また、この献辞の中では詩人を「Ever-Living(永遠に生きる)」と言及しているが、それがシェイクスピア別人説に火をつけた。シェイクスピアは『ヘンリー六世 第1部』第4幕第3場51-2で「[t]hat ever-living man of memory(記憶の中に永遠に生きるお方)」というフレーズを死んだヘンリー五世のことに使っていて、このフレーズを死者に対する形容語句とするならば、『ソネット集』の真の作者は1606年には死んでいて、1616年まで生きたストラトフォードのシェイクスピアではありえないというのである[2]。さらに、本の表紙や全ページのトップにあるシェイクスピアの名前に「SHAKE-SPEARES(シェイク-スピア)」とハイフンが入れられていることも、別人説の根拠になっている


『ソネット集』の最初の17篇(1番から17番)は若い男性(「美男子(Fair Youth)」と呼ばれることが多い)に向けて、早く結婚して子を作り[3]、その美貌を次の世代に継がせるよう書いている。これらは「Procreation sonnets(子作りのソネット)」と呼ばれている。




ソネット127番から152番は、「The Dark Lady(ダーク・レディ、黒い女)」と呼ばれる作者の愛人への愛が歌われている。




各ソネットは3つの四行連と最後の二行連(対句)の合計十四行で構成されている。押韻構成は「abab cdcd efef gg」で、この形式は現在シェイクスピア風ソネット(またはシェークスピア風十四行詩)として知られている。(詳細はソネットを参照)

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? - (a)
Thou art more lovely and more temperate. - (b)
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, - (a)
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date. - (b)

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, - (c)
And often is his gold complexion dimm’d; - (d)
And every fair from fair some time declines, - (c)
By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimm’d; - (d)
But thy eternal summer shall not fade, - (e)

Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; - (f)
Nor shall Death brag thou wand’rest in his shade, - (e)
When in eternal lines to time thou grows’t: - (f)

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, - (g)
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. - (g)


3番目の四行連の最初は「転(volta, turn)」、つまりそこで詩のムードが変わり、意外な新事実ないしは本心の露呈が表されていることが多い。


Thou art more love-ly and more tem-pe-rate.

ただし例外もある。ソネット29番は押韻構成の「f」のところに「b」を反復し、つまり「abab cdcd ebeb gg」になっている。ソネット99番は十五行、ソネット126番は6つの二行連で合計十二行になっている。ソネット145番は弱強五歩格でなく弱強三歩格で書かれている。




「T.T.(T・T氏)」は出版者のトマス・ソープ(Thomas Thorpe)の略だが、この献辞を書いたのがソープかシェイクスピアかはわからない。大文字とピリオドが使われているのは古代ローマの銘に似せることで、永遠性と重厚感を与えたかったのだろう。シェイクスピアもソネット55番の中でこのソネット集は石碑や銘のような俗世のものより長持ちすると述べている[4]



  • William Herbert - 3代目ペンブルック伯ウィリアム・ハーバート(William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke)は、シェイクスピア作品の「ファースト・フォリオ」で献呈されていることから、最有力候補と見なされている。
  • Wriothesley, Henry - 3代目サウサンプトン伯ヘンリー・リズリー(Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton)のイニシャルを逆さまにしたもの。サウサンプトン伯はシェイクスピアの詩『ヴィーナスとアドーニス』ならびに『ルークリース陵辱』を献呈されている。なお、サウサンプトン伯は美男子だったことで知られている。
  • William Harvey - サウサンプトン伯の義父サー・ウィリアム・ハーヴェイ。サウサンプトン伯を「美男子」とし、「W・H氏」を別人とする説で、ソネットを出版に提供したという意味での「生みの親」という理屈。
  • William Himself - ウィリアム本人、つまりシェイクスピア。ドイツの研究家D. Barnstorffの説だが、支持は得られていない。
  • W.S or W.Sh - シェイクスピアのイニシャルの単純な誤植とする説。バートランド・ラッセルが回想録でそれを暗示し、ドナルド・ウェイン・フォスター(Donald Wayne Foster)『Master W.H., R.I.P.』やジョナサン・ベイト(Jonathan Bate)『The Genius of Shakespeare』がそれを支持した。ベイトは「onlie(唯一の)」を「peerless(無比の)」「singular(非凡な)」と、「begetter(生みの親)」を「maker(作り手)」たとえば「writer(作家)」と読むとしている。
  • William Hall - ウィリアム・ホールは印刷屋で、ソープが出版した他の本を印刷したとされる。この説によれば、献辞は単にソープが同業者への敬意でしたことで、シェイクスピアは関係がないことになる。サー・シドニー・リー(Sidney Lee)が『A Life of William Shakespeare』(1898年)で主張し、B・R・ウォード大佐(Colonel B.R. Ward)が『The Mystery of Mr. W.H.』(1923年)で支持した。この説の支持者は、「Mr.W.H.」の直後に「ALL.」が続いて、続けると「Mr.W.H. ALL.」になることをその根拠としている。他にも、ソープがソネットの印刷を頼んだジョージ・エルド(George Eld)が出版したロバート・サウスウェル(Robert Southwell)の詩集を編集したウィリアム・ホールという説もある[5]。3年前に「WH」と署名したハックニー(Hackney)のウィリアム・ホールという人物もいるが、それが印刷屋のウィリアム・ホールと同一人物かどうかはわからない。
  • William Hughes - 18世紀の研究者トマス・ティアウィット(Thomas Tyrwhitt)が駄洒落で「W・H氏」ならびに「美男子」はウィーリー・ヒューズ(Willie Hughes)なる人物であると言い出し、『ソネット集』の1790年版でエドモンド・マンロー(Edmond Malone)もこの説を繰り返した。オスカー・ワイルドの短編『W・H氏の肖像』(『アーサー・サヴィル卿の犯罪(Lord Arthur Savile's Crime and Other Stories)』に収録)で語り手というよりはむしろワイルドがソネットの中の「will」と「hues」の駄洒落から、ソネットはシェイクスピア劇で女性の役を演じていたウィリー・ヒューズなる魅力的な若い男優であると主張した。しかし、そのような人物が実在したという証拠はどこにもない。
  • William Haughton - ウィリアム・ホートン(William Haughton)は当時の劇作家。
  • William Hart - ウィリアム・ハート(William Hart)はシェイクスピアの甥で相続人。ハートは俳優で結婚はしなかった。
  • Who He - 2002年の『ソネット集』オックスフォード・シェイクスピア版で、コリン・バロウはこの献辞は意図的に不可解で曖昧であると主張して、当時のパンフレットで使われていた奇想「Who He(彼は誰)」という説をとっている。バロウは、献辞を書いたのはソープで、憶測と議論を呼び、それで売り上げを延ばすためだったとほのめかしている[6]


『ソネット集』には、3人の人物のことが言及されている。「Fair Youth(美男子)」、「Rival Poet(ライバルの詩人)」、「Dark Lady(ダーク・レディ、黒い女)」である。語り手は美男子の美しさを賛美し、続いてダーク・レディとの関係を表明する。詩人とこの人物たちがフィクションなのか、それとも自伝的なものかはわからない。自伝的なものであるならば、その人物の特定が必要で、A・L・ローズ(A. L. Rowse)など何人もの研究者たちがそれを試みた。



「美男子(Fair Youth)」はソネット1番から126番までに登場する名前のない若者である。作者は美男子について、ロマンティックで愛情に満ちた言葉使いをしている。そのことから、注釈者の中には作者と美男子の間の同性愛関係をほのめかしたり、プラトニック・ラブを読み取ったりする意見がある。

ソネット1番から17番は、作者と美男子の緊密な関係を示していない。作者は美男子に結婚と子作りを薦めている。ところがソネット18番で「Shall I compare thee to a summer's day(君を夏の日にたとえようか?)」と恋愛的な調子に劇的に変わる。とくにソネット20番では、美男子が女性でないことを嘆いている。以後のソネットのほとんどは関係の浮き沈みを歌い、作者とブラック・レディとの情事と共に絶頂に達する。そして美男子がブラック・レディの魅力に屈した時、関係は終わったように見える。





歴史的人物の中にダーク・レディを探す試みがされてきた。候補に挙がったのは、メアリー・フィットン(Mary Fitton)、ローズが推す詩人のエミリア・ラニエ(Emilia Lanier)がいるが、どちらもソネットに描かれたレディとは符合しない。一方、肌が「dun(暗い=くすんだ、灰褐色、焦げ茶色)」で髪が「black wires(黒い針金)」と書かれていることから(ソネット130番)、アンソニー・バージェスの『その瞳は太陽に似ず(Nothing Like the Sun: A Story of Shakespeare's Love Life)』のように、ダーク・レディをアフリカ系とする説もある。




「ライバルの詩人(Rival Poet)」はクリストファー・マーロウジョージ・チャップマンGeorge Chapman)だと言われることがある。しかし、このキャラクターに現実のモデルがいたという証拠はない。作者はこのライバルを名声とパトロネージュの競争相手と見ていた。なお、ソネット78番から86番のライバルの詩人は集団と見なされている[8]




  • ジェンダーの役割についての遊び(ソネット20番)
  • 愛を必要としない人間の邪悪さ(ソネット66番)
  • 政治的事件についてのコメント(ソネット124番)
  • 愛をからかう(ソネット128番)
  • セックスについてオープンに語ること(ソネット129番)
  • 美のパロディ(ソネット130番)
  • ウィットなポルノグラフィ(ソネット151番)


慣習的だったペトラルカ風ソネットの詩作が終焉を迎えた時、シェイクスピア風ソネットはプロトタイプになり、さらには新しい種類のモダンな恋愛詩が始まったと言える。しかし、18世紀にはイングランドでの評価は比較的低かった。1805年になっても、「The Critical Review」誌はなおも完璧な英語のソネットはミルトンのものだと信じていた。ロマン主義とともにシェイクスピアのソネットが再評価され、19世紀になってようやく確固とした評価を得るに至った[10]







  1. ^ Evans, Gwynne Blakemore; Hecht, Anthony (eds.) (1996). The Sonnets. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, p275. ISBN 0-521-22225-7
  2. ^ Fields, Bertram. Players: The Mysterious Identity of William Shakespeare. New York: Harper Collins, 2005, 114
  3. ^ Stanley Wells and Michael Dobson, eds., The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 439.
  4. ^ Sparknotes:No Fear Shakespeare: The Sonnets. (2004) New York, NY: Spark Publishing. ISBN 1-4114-0219-7.
  5. ^ Collins, John Churton. Ephemera Critica. Westminster, Constable and Co., 1902; p. 216.
  6. ^ Colin Burrow, ed. The Complete Sonnets and Poems (Oxford UP, 2002), p. 98-102-3.
  7. ^ Two loves have I at guardian.co.uk
  8. ^ Francis Meres and the Cultural Contexts of Shakespeare's Rival Poet Sonnets at oxfordjournals.org
  9. ^ Stapleton, M. L. "Shakespeare's Man Right Fair as Sonnet Lady." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 46 (2004): 272
  10. ^ Sanderlin, George (June 1939). "The Repute of Shakespeare's Sonnets in the Early Nineteenth Century". Modern Language Notes 54 (6): 462–466. doi:10.2307/2910858.
  11. ^ Shakespeare's Sonnets in Latin, translated by Alfred Thomas Barton, newly edited by Ludwig Bernays, Edition Signathur, Dozwil/CH 2006
  12. ^ Shakespeare: La sonetoj (sonnets in Esperanto), Translated by William Auld, Edistudio, Edistudio Homepage at edistudio.it







ソネットの形式には大きく3つのタイプがあり、それはイタリア風ソネットイギリス風ソネットスペンサー風ソネットである。イギリス風ソネットの中のウィリアム・シェイクスピアが用いた形式はシェイクスピア風ソネットシェークスピア風十四行詩と呼ばれ、押韻構成は「ABAB CDCD EFEF GG」となる(「Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?」など)。



「sonnet」という用語はプロヴァンス語sonetイタリア語sonettoに由来する。ともに「小さな歌」という意味である。13世紀には、それは厳格な押韻構成と特定の構造を持つ14行の詩を意味するようになった。ソネットと関する取り決めは歴史とともに進化した。ソネット作家のことをSonneteerと呼ぶことがあるが、それは嘲笑的に使うことができる。近現代のソネット作家たちは単純にsonnet writersと呼ばれることを選ぶ。ソネット作家で最も有名な人物は154篇のソネットを書いたウィリアム・シェイクスピアであろう。



イタリア風ソネットItalian sonnet)またはペトラルカ風ソネットPetrarchan sonnet)は、神聖ローマ皇帝フリードリヒ2世の回りに集ったシチリア派(en:Sicilian School)のジャコモ・ダ・レンティーニ(en:Giacomo da Lentini)とEtterによって発明された[1]。グイットーネ・ダレッツォ(en:Guittone d'Arezzo)がそれを再発見し、トスカーナに持ち込んだ。グイットーネはトスカーナの言葉に合わせて変え、新シチリア派(1235年 - 1294年)を設立した。グイットーネはおよそ300篇のソネットを書いた。当時のイタリアの詩人では他に、ダンテ・アリギエーリ1265年 - 1321年)、グイード・カヴァルカンティ1255年頃 - 1300年)がソネットを書いた。しかし初期のソネット詩人で最も有名な人物はペトラルカである。


ジャコモ・ダ・レンティーニのソネットでは、八行連の押韻構成は「a-b-a-b, a-b-a-b」だったが、後には「a-b-b-a, a-b-b-a」となり、それがイタリア風ソネットの標準となった。六行連には、「c-d-e-c-d-e」か「c-d-c-c-d-c」の二つがあって、やがて、「c-d-c-d-c-d」という変化形も採用された。

英語詩のソネットを最初に書いたのは、サー・トマス・ワイアットen:Thomas Wyatt (poet))とサリー伯ヘンリー・ハワード(en:Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey)で、イタリアの押韻構成を用いた。同様にイタリア風ソネットを書いた詩人たちには、ジョン・ミルトン、トマス・グレイ、ウィリアム・ワーズワース、エリザベス・バレット・ブラウニングらがいる。18世紀初期のアメリカ合衆国の詩人エドナ・セント・ヴィンセント・ミレイもイタリア風ソネットを多く書いた。

When I consider how my light is spent (a)
Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, (b)
And that one talent which death to hide, (b)
Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent (a)
To serve therewith my Maker, and present (a)
My true account, lest he returning chide; (b)
"Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?" (b)
I fondly ask; but Patience to prevent (a)
That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need (c)
Either man's work or his own gifts; who best (d)
Bear his mile yoke, they serve him best. His state (e)
Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed (c)
And post o'er land and ocean without rest; (d)
They also serve who only stand and wait." (e)
-- ジョン・ミルトン『On His Blindness』


16世紀初期にソネットをイングランドにもたらしたのはトーマス・ワイアットだった。ワイアットならびに同時代人のサリー伯のソネットは主としてイタリア語のペトラルカ、フランス語のピエール・ド・ロンサールの翻訳だった。ワイアットがソネットをイングランドに紹介している一方で、サリー伯は英語のソネットの特徴となる押韻構成、韻律、四行連への分割、などを行った。フィリップ・シドニーの『アストロフェルとステラ』(1591年)は、ソネット連作を大変流行させた。続く20年間に、シェイクスピア、エドマンド・スペンサーマイケル・ドレイトンen:Michael Drayton)、サミュエル・ダニエルen:Samuel Daniel)、ブルック男爵フルク・グレヴィル(en:Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke)、ウィリアム・ドラモンド・オブ・ホーソーンデン(en:William Drummond of Hawthornden)など多くの詩人たちがソネット連作を発表した。それらのソネットは基本的にペトラルカの伝統にインスパイアされていて、一般に詩人の女性への愛情を扱っていた。ただしシェイクスピアのソネット連作は例外だった。17世紀にはソネットは他のテーマのためにも書かれるようになり、たとえばジョン・ダンジョージ・ハーバートは宗教的ソネットを、ジョン・ミルトンは瞑想的な詩としてソネットを使用した。シェイクスピアとペトラルカなどの押韻構成はこの時代を通して人気があった。

ソネットの流行は王政復古期には時代遅れになり、1670年からワーズワースの時代までソネットはほとんど書かれなくなった。ソネットが復活したのはフランス革命の時だった。ワーズワースは数篇のソネットを書き、その中でも最も有名なのが『The world is too much with us』(en:The world is too much with us)とミルトンに向けたソネットである。ワーズワースのソネットは基本的にミルトンのものを手本にしている。ジョン・キーツパーシー・ビッシュ・シェリーもソネットを書いた。キーツのソネットは部分的にシェイクスピアにインスパイアされた公式かつ修辞的なパターンを用いた。一方シェリーはラディカルに革新し、『オジマンディアス』(en:Ozymandias)というソネットではシェリー独自の押韻構成(「ABABACDCEDEFEF」)を創造した。19世紀を通してソネットは書かれたが、エリザベス・バレット・ブラウニングの『Sonnets from the Portuguese』(en:Sonnets from the Portuguese)とダンテ・ゲイブリエル・ロセッティのソネットの他には、成功した伝統的ソネットはあまりなかった。ジェラード・マンリ・ホプキンスも(しばしばスプラング・リズムで)ソネットを書いた。その中でも最良のものは『The Windhover』で、さらに10-1/2行のカータル・ソネット(後述)の『Pied Beauty』や、24行のコーデイト・ソネット(後述)の『That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire』などの変化形のソネットを書いた。19世紀の終わりになると、ソネットは柔軟性のある多目的形式に応用されるようになっていた。

この柔軟性は、20世紀にさらに広げられた。モダニストの時代の詩人では、ロバート・フロスト、エドナ・セント・ヴィンセント・ミレイ、E・E・カミングスがソネットを書いた。ウィリアム・バトラー・イェイツ半韻を用いたソネット『Leda and the Swan』(en:Leda and the Swan#In poetry)を書いた。ウィルフレッド・オーエンのソネット『死すべき定めの若者のための賛歌』(en:Anthem for Doomed Youth)も20世紀初期のソネットである。W・H・オーデンはその生涯を通じて2つのソネット連作と数篇のソネットを書いて、押韻構成の幅を相当に広げた。また、オーデンの『The Secret Agent』(1928年)は英語で書かれた最初の押韻されていないソネットである。半韻、韻のない、さらには韻律のないソネットが1950年以降とても人気になった。そのジャンルでおそらく最も知られているのは、シェイマス・ヒーニーの『Glanmore Sonnets』と『Clearances』(両方とも半韻を使っている)と、ジェフリー・ミル(en:Geoffrey Hill)の中期のソネット連作『An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England』であろう。しかし、1990年代は形式主義者が復活したようで、ここ10年ほどは伝統的なソネットがいくつか書かれている。


ところでイタリア風ソネットの導入後まもなく、イングランドの詩人たちは完全にネイティヴな形式への発展をしはじめた。その詩人たちとは、サー・フィリップ・シドニー、マイケル・ドレイトン、サミュエル・ダニエル、サリー伯の甥にあたるオックスフォード伯エドワード・ド・ヴィアー、それにシェイクスピアなどである。この詩形はシェイクスピア風ソネットまたはシェイクスピア風十四行詩Shakespearean sonnet)と呼ばれるが、シェイクスピアが最初にこの形式を作ったからではなく、シェイクスピアが有名な使い手だったからである。この詩形は3つの四行連と1つの二行連から成り立っている。三番目の四行連は一般に、予想できない急激なテーマの、あるいは、イマジスティックな「ターン(volta)」を提示する。一般的な押韻構成は「a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g」である。くわえて、弱強五歩格で書かれている。これは1行に10、もしくは11か9の音節があり、音節は1つおきにアクセントが弱く・強くなる(アイアンブ参照)。ソネットは14行でなければならず、最後の2行は(例外があるかも知れないが)押韻された結末を持っている。シェイクスピアのソネットでは、二行連は普通詩のテーマを簡潔に述べるか、あるいは、そのテーマに新鮮な見方を提示する。

Let me not to the marriage of true minds (a)
Admit impediments, love is not love (b)
Which alters when it alteration finds, (a)
Or bends with the remover to remove. (b)
O no, it is an ever fixed mark (c)
That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d)
It is the star to every wand'ring bark, (c)
Whose worth's unknown although his height be taken. (d)
Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e)
Within his bending sickle's compass come, (f)
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e)
But bears it out even to the edge of doom: (f)
If this be error and upon me proved, (g)
I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)
-- シェイクスピア『ソネット集』116番




コーデイト・ソネットcaudate sonnet)はソネットの拡張ヴァージョン。ソネットの標準形式である14行の後に、コーダラテン語:cauda、「尾」の意味)が続く。この名称はコーダから取られている。

この形式を発明したのはフランチェスコ・ベルニ(en:Francesco Berni)だと信じられている。『Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry』によると、この形式は風刺にもっとも多く使われる。たとえば、ジョン・ミルトンの『On the New Forcers of Conscience Under the Long Parliament』がその顕著な例である[2]

ジェラード・マンリ・ホプキンスは『That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire』でこの形式を使ったが、風刺的な雰囲気は少なかった[3]。この詩はホプキンスがソネット形式のヴァリエーションを実験した多くのものの1つである。しかし、curtal sonnetと違って、ホプキンスのコーデイト・ソネットはコーダ部分の6行が追加されている他は従来のソネット形式を変えてはいない。ホプキンスは14行目と15行目を句またがりにすることで、拡張の効果を引き立たせた。

ホプキンスはロバート・ブリッジス(en:Robert Bridges)との手紙のやりとりの中で、このようなコーダの可能性を探った。ブリッジスがこの形式のミルトンの例をホプキンスに教えた[4]。目的はミルトンの風刺的使用とは異なるが、詩の終わりに安定を追加するコーダの効果は似通っている[5]


カータル・ソネットcurtal sonnet)は、ジェラード・マンリ・ホプキンスが発明した詩形で、ホプキンスは3つの詩でそれを使っている。

カータル・ソネットは11行、正確には10 1/2行から成るソネットである。イタリア風ソネット(ペトラルカ風ソネット)を、そのままの比率で、厳密に3/4に圧縮している。従来のソネットの前半の八行連はカータル・ソネットでは六行連に、従来の後半の六行連部は四行連プラス1/2行の「tail piece」に変換される。ホプキンスは最終行を1/2行と言ったが、実際にはホプキンスお得意のスプラング・ライン行の半分よりも短いかも知れない。『Poems』(1876年 - 1889年)の序文で、ホプキンスはイタリア風ソネットとカータル・ソネットの関係を数学的に表した。もし、イタリア風ソネットが、8+6=14としたら、次のようになる[6]


ホプキンスがこの詩形で作った詩は、『Pied Beauty』、『Peace』、『Ash Boughs』である。

Glory be to God for dappled things—
For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow;
For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;

Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches' wings;
Landscape plotted and pieced—fold, fallow, and plough;
And áll trádes, their gear and tackle and trim.
All things counter, original, spare, strange;
Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?)
With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim;

He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change:

Praise him.

『Pied Beauty』(数字の部分はイタリア風ソネットの比例を示すもので、元々の詩にはない)


crown of sonnets

crown of sonnetsまたはsonnet coronaは、連続するソネットで、通常、単一のテーマに関係する/あるいはしない特定の人物に宛てられる。


有名な例はジョン・ダンの『冠(La Corona)』[9]で、この形式の名称はその詩の題名に由来している。他には、レディー・メアリー・ロース(en:Lady Mary Wroth)の『A Crown of Sonnets Dedicated to Love』もある。

crown of sonnetsのより進歩した形式はsonnet redoubléまたはheroic crownと呼ばれ、15のソネットから成る。ソネット間のリンクは上記と同じだが、最後のソネットは直前のソネットの最終行を最初の行で繰り返した後に、他のソネットの最初の行を順番に並べた結合ソネットとなっている。ヤロスラフ・サイフェルトプラハについて書いた感傷的なソネット『Věnec sonetů』でこの形式を使った[10]。マリリン・ネルソンの児童書『A Wreath for Emmett Till』(2005年)も同じ形式で書かれている[11]。他にも、マリリン・ハッカー(en:Marilyn Hacker)、Linda Beirds、Andrea Carter Brown、Robert Darling、Moira Egan、Jenny Factor、アンドレイ・クリロフ(en:Andrei Krylov (musician))、Julie Fay、Marie Ponsot、Marilyn Taylor、Kathrine Varnesなどが近年出版している。


オネーギン・スタンザオネーギン連Onegin stanza)またはPushkin sonnet[12]は、アレクサンドル・プーシキンが『エヴゲーニイ・オネーギン』(en:Eugene Onegin)で発明した詩形。『エヴゲーニイ・オネーギン』は小説だが、弱強四歩格の韻文で(ほとんど)書かれている。押韻構成は「aBaBccDDeFFeGG」で、小文字の部分は女性韻、大文字の部分は男性韻を示している。


ジョン・ストールワージー(en:Jon Stallworthy)の『The Nutcracker』(1987年)や、ヴィクラム・セートen:Vikram Seth)の小説『The Golden Gate』(1986年en:The Golden Gate (novel))はオネーギン・スタンザを全面的に使って書かれている。


自由詩の出現で、ソネットはいささか時代遅れに見られ、詩人の各派の中でも使用されなくなった。しかし、ウィルフレッド・オーエン、ジョン・ベリマンen:John Berryman)、エドウィン・モーガン(en:Edwin Morgan)、ロバート・フロスト、エドナ・セント・ヴィンセント・ミレイ、E・E・カミングス、ホルヘ・ルイス・ボルヘスパブロ・ネルーダジョアン・ブロッサen:Joan Brossa)、ライナー・マリア・リルケ、シェイマス・ヒーニーといった多くの20世紀の詩人たちがこの詩形を使い続けている。アメリカ合衆国の新形式主義(en:New Formalism)運動も現代のソネットへの関心に貢献した。


  1. ^ Ernest Hatch Wilkins, The invention of the sonnet, and other studies in Italian literature (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1959), 11-39
  2. ^ "Caudate sonnet," The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Ed. Alex Preminger and T.V.F. Brogan. Princeton UP, 1993.
  3. ^ See the introduction and notes to "Heraclitean Fire" in The Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, 4th edition, ed. W.H. Gardner and N.H. Mackenzie (Oxford UP, 1967).
  4. ^ Jennifer A. Wagner, "The Allegory of Form in Hopkins's Religious Sonnets," Nineteenth-Century Literature, Vol. 47, No. 1. (Jun., 1992), 44-45.
  5. ^ See Wagner (45), who quotes en:Barbara Herrnstein Smith on the effect of the form.
  6. ^ Hopkins, Gerard Manley. The Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, 4th edition. Ed. W.H. Gardner and N.H. Mackenzie. Oxford UP, 1967.
  7. ^ Elisabeth W. Schneider, "The Wreck of the Deutschland: A New Reading," PMLA, Vol. 81, No. 1. (Mar., 1966), pp. 110-122.
  8. ^ Pitchford, "The Curtal Sonnets of Gerard Manley Hopkins." Modern Language Notes, Vol. 67, No. 3. (Mar., 1952), pp. 165-169.
  9. ^ "La Corona" at luminarium.org
  10. ^ a Wreath of Sonnets。Jan Křesadlo(en:Jan Křesadlo)Eva Stuckeによる英語訳。
  11. ^ [1]




crown of sonnets



  • I. Bell, et al. A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Blackwell Pub., 2006.
  • T. W. H. Crosland. The English Sonnet. Hesperides Press, 2006.
  • J. Fuller. The Oxford Book of Sonnets. Oxford Univ. Press, 2002.
  • J. Fuller. The Sonnet. (The Critical Idiom: #26). Methuen & Co., 1972.
  • J. Hollander. Sonnets: From Dante to the Present. Everyman's Library, 2001.
  • P. Levin. The Penguin Book of the Sonnet: 500 Years of a Classic Tradition in English. Penguin, 2001.
  • J. Phelan. The Nineteenth Century Sonnet. Palgrave-Macmillan, 2005.
  • S. Regan. The Sonnet. Oxford Univ. Press, 2006.
  • M. R. G. Spiller. The Development of the Sonnet: An Introduction. Routledge, 1992.
  • M. R. G. Spiller. The Sonnet Sequence: A Study of Its Strategies. Twayne Pub., 1997.


William Shakespeare(ウィリアム・シェイクスピア)

ウィリアム・シェイクスピア(William Shakespeare)

イングランド王国の旗 イングランド王国ストラトフォード・アポン・エイヴォン
イングランド王国の旗 イングランド王国、ストラトフォード・アポン・エイヴォン
イングランド王国の旗 イングランド王国
1589年 - 1613年
ヘンリー六世 第1部
William Shakespeare Signature.svg

ウィリアム・シェイクスピア英語: William Shakespeare, 1564年4月26日洗礼日) - 1616年4月23日グレゴリオ暦5月3日))は、イングランド劇作家詩人であり、イギリス・ルネサンス演劇を代表する人物でもある。卓越した人間観察眼からなる内面の心理描写により、最も優れた英文学の作家とも言われている。また彼ののこした膨大な著作は、初期近代英語の実態を知る上での貴重な言語学的資料ともなっている。










シェイクスピアの両親には全部で8人の子供がいた。ジョン(1558年)、マーガレット(1562年 - 1563年)、ウィリアム、ギルバート(1566年 - 1612年)、ジョーン(1569年 - 1646年)、アン(1571年 - 1579年)、リチャード(1574年 - 1613年)、エドモンド(1580年 - 1607年)である[1]


シェイクスピアはストラトフォードの中心にあったグラマー・スクール、エドワード6世校 (King Edward VI School Stratford-upon-Avon) に通ったであろうと推定されている[2]。 校名に冠されているエドワード6世と学校の設立の起源になんら関係はなく、創設に関与したのはローマ・カトリックであり、エドワード6世の時代を大きく遡る15世紀初頭に開校されている[2]。 エリザベス朝時代のグラマー・スクールは学校ごとに教育水準の高低差はあったが、この学校はラテン語文法や文学について集中学習が行なわれていた。講義の一環として学生たちはラテン演劇の洗礼を受ける。実際に演じてみることでラテン語の習熟に役立てるためである[2]

シェイクスピアの最初期の戯曲『間違いの喜劇』にプラウトゥスの戯曲『メナエクムス兄弟』 ("The Two Menaechmuses") との類似性があることも、シェイクスピアがこの学校で学んだと推測される[3]根拠の一つである。1482年にカトリックの司祭によってこの学校がストラトフォードに寄贈されて以来、地元の男子は無料で入学できたこと、父親が町の名士であったためそれなりの教育は受けていただろうと考えられることなどがその他の根拠である。家庭が没落してきたため中退したという説もあるが、そもそもこの学校の学籍簿は散逸してしまったため、シェイクスピアが在籍したという確たる証拠はなく、進学してそれ以上の高等教育を受けたかどうかも不明である[2]

1582年11月29日、18歳のシェイクスピアは26歳の女性アン・ハサウェイ (Anne Hathaway) と結婚した。ある公文書において彼女はストラトフォードにも近い「テンプル・グラフトンの人」と誤記されている(実際にはショッタリー出身)ので、結婚式がそこで行なわれた可能性が高い。ハサウェイ家の隣人であるフルク・サンダルズとジョン・リチャードソンが、結婚には何の障害もなかったという保証書を書いている。このときすでにアンは妊娠3ヶ月だったため、式次第を急ぐ必要があった模様である。


結婚後、ロンドンの劇壇に名を現わすまでの数年間に関するその他の記録はほとんど現存していない。双子が生まれた1585年からロバート・グリーンによる言及のある1592年(後述)までの7年間は、どこで何をしていたのか、なぜストラトフォードからロンドンへ移ったのかなどといった行状が一切不明となっているため、「失われた年月」 (The Lost Years) と呼ばれる[4]。 この間の事情については、「鹿泥棒をして故郷を追われた」「田舎の教師をしていた」「ロンドンの劇場主の所有する馬の世話をしていた」など、いくつかの伝説が残っているがいずれも証拠はなく、これらの伝説はシェイクスピアの死後に広まった噂である[5]

シェイクスピアがランカシャーで教職についていたという説は、1985年にE・A・J・ホニグマンによって提唱されたもので、ホートン家の人物が記した遺言書にもとづいている。この中に戯曲や舞台衣装についての言及と、「現在同居しているウィリアム・シェイクシャフト (William Shakeshaft) 」の面倒を見てやってほしいという親族への要請があり、このシェイクシャフトなる人物こそシェイクスピアのことではないかというものである[5]。 ストラトフォード出身のシェイクスピアとランカシャーのホートン家を結びつけるのは、かつてシェイクスピアの教師であったジョン・コットンである。ランカシャーの生まれでホートン家の隣人であったコットンがシェイクスピアを教師として推薦したとホニグマンは主張している[5][6]。 マイケル・ウッドは、約20年後にシェイクスピアのグローブ座株式の受託者となるトマス・サヴェッジがその遺言書の中で言及されている隣人と結婚していることから、何らかの関係をもっていたであろうことをつけ加えているが、シェイクシャフトという姓は当時のランカシャーではありふれたものであったとも述べている[7]



1592年ごろまでにシェイクスピアはロンドンへ進出し、演劇の世界に身を置くようになっていた。当時は、エリザベス朝演劇の興隆に伴って、劇場や劇団が次々と設立されている最中であった。その中で、シェイクスピアは俳優として活動するかたわら次第に脚本を書くようになる。1592年にはロバート・グリーンが著書『三文の知恵』 ("Greene's Groatsworth of Wit") において、「役者の皮を被ってはいるが心は虎も同然の、我々の羽毛で着飾った成り上がりのカラスが近ごろ現われ、諸君の中でも最良の書き手と同じくらい優れたブランク・ヴァースを自分も紡ぎうると慢心している。たかが何でも屋の分際で、自分こそが国内で唯一の舞台を揺るがす者 (Shake-scene) であると自惚れている」と書いており、他の作家から中傷されるほどの名声をこのときにはすでにかちえていたことが知られている(グリーンはシェイクスピアを名指しで批判しているわけではないが、下線部が『ヘンリー六世 第3部』第1幕第4場のヨーク公のセリフ “O tiger's heart wrapt in a woman's hide!”(「女の皮を被っていても、心は虎も同然だ!」)をもじって引用していることや、「舞台を揺るがす者」 ("Shake-scene") がいかにもシェイクスピアを連想させる名であることから、シェイクスピアに対する非難であることはほぼ間違いないとされる)。



高等教育を欠いてはいたものの、シェイクスピアは長らくジェントルマンの地位を求めていた。まだ裕福であったころシェイクスピアの父は紋章を取得するために紋章院へ嘆願をしており、もし受理されればこの紋章は息子であるシェイクスピアが受け継ぐことになるものであった。俳優(当時はいかがわしい職業であった)のシェイクスピアには紋章を得る資格がなかったが、ストラトフォードの役人であり妻の生まれもよかった父ジョン・シェイクスピアは充分に資格を備えていた。しかし一家の財政が傾いていたためになかなか望みを叶えることができなかったのである。1596年に再び申請をはじめ、シェイクスピア家は紋章を手にすることができた。おそらくシェイクスピア自身が経済的に大きな成功を収めていたためである。紋章に記された銘は “Non sanz droict” (権利なからざるべし)であったが、これはおそらく銘を考案したシェイクスピアのある種の守勢や不安感を示している。社会的地位や名誉の回復といったテーマが彼の作品のプロットにおいて頻出するようになるが、シェイクスピアは自分の切望していたものを自嘲しているようである[9]

1596年にビショップスゲイトのセント・ヘレン教区へ転居。1598年にグローブ座で初演されたベン・ジョンソンの『十人十色』 ("Every Man in His Humour") では、出演者一覧の最上段にシェイクスピアの名前が記載されており、俳優としての活動も盛んであったことが見て取れる。また1598年ごろから、それまでは匿名のまま刊行されることが多かったシェイクスピアの四折判のタイトル・ページに著者名が記されるようになったが、シェイクスピアの名前がセールスポイントになるほどの人気を確立していた事が窺われる[10]














Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear,

To dig the dust enclosed here.
Blest be the man that spares these stones,
And cursed be he that moves my bones.



  • 父方の祖父:リチャード・シェイクスピア(1490年 - 1561年2月10日)
  • 母方の祖父:ロベルト・アーデン
  • 父:ジョン・シェイクスピア(1531年 - 1601年9月7日)
  • 母:メアリー・アーデン(1537年 - 1608年)
  • 兄弟姉妹
    • ジョン・シェイクスピア(1558年)- 長兄
    • マーガレット・シェイクスピア(1562年 - 1563年) - 長姉
    • ギルバート・シェイクスピア(1566年10月13日 - 1612年2月3日) - 長弟
    • ジョーン・シェイクスピア(1569年4月15日 - 1646年11月4日) - 長妹
    • アン・シェイクスピア(1571年 - 1579年) - 次妹
    • リチャード・シェイクスピア(1574年 - 1613年) - 次弟
    • エドモンド・シェイクスピア(1580年 - 1607年12月31日) - 三弟
  • 甥、姪 - 長妹ジョーンが William Hart と結婚して、3男1女がおり、シェイクスピアからみて甥、姪にあたる。
    • ウィリアム(1600年 - 1639年)
    • メアリー(1603年 - 1607年)
    • トマス(1605年 - 1661年)
    • ミカエル(1608年 - 1618年)
  • 妻と子女
    • アン・ハサウェイ(1555/1556年 - 1623年8月6日) - 妻
      • スザンナ・シェイクスピア(スザンナ・ホール、1583年5月26日 - 1649年7月11日) - 長女。医師のジョン・ホールと結婚し、エリザベス・ホールを儲ける。
      • ハムネット・シェイクスピア(1585年2月2日 - 1596年8月11日) - 長男。11歳で夭折。ジュディスとは双子。
      • ジュディス・シェイクスピア(ジュディス・クワイニー、1585年2月2日 - 1662年2月9日) - 次女。ハムネットは双子。居酒屋経営者のトマス・クワイニーと結婚し、3子(下記)を儲ける。
  • 娘婿
    • ジョン・ホール(1575年 - 1635年11月25日) - 長女スザンナの夫。スザンナとの間にエリザベス・ホールを儲ける。
    • トマス・クワイニー(1589年2月26日 - 1662/1663年) - 次女ジュディスの夫。ジュディスとの間にシェイクスピア、リチャード、トマスの3子(下記)を儲ける。
    • エリザベス・ホール(エリザベス・ナッシュ、エリザベス・バーナード、1608年2月21日 - 1670年2月17日) - 長女スザンナとその夫ジョンの娘。
    • シェイクスピア・クワイニー(1616年11月23日 - 1617年5月8日) - 次女ジュディスとその夫トマスの長男。1歳になる前に夭折。
    • リチャード・クワイニー(1618年2月9日 - 1639年2月6日)- 次女ジュディスとその夫トマスの次男。20歳で死去。
    • トマス・クワイニー(1620年1月23日 - 1639年1月28日)次女ジュディスとその夫トマスの三男。 19歳で死去。
  • 孫婿
    • トマス・ナッシュ(1593年7月20日 - 1647年4月4日) - エリザベスの最初の夫。
    • ジョン・バーナード(1604年 - 1674年) - エリザベスの2番目の夫。
  • 曾孫
    • 孫4人は子を成すことが無かったため、エリザベスの死でシェイクスピアの直系子孫は断絶している。






当時としては一般的なことであるが、シェイクスピアの戯曲は他の劇作家の作品に依拠しているものや、古い説話や歴史資料文献に手を加えたものが多い。例えば、おそらく『ハムレット』(1601年ごろ)は現存していない先行作品(『原ハムレット』と呼ばれる)を改作したものであることや、『リア王』が同じ題名の過去の作品を脚色したものであることなどが研究の結果明らかとなっている[16]。 また歴史上の出来事を題材としたシェイクスピアの戯曲は、古代ローマ古代ギリシアを舞台としたものと近世イングランドを舞台としたものの2種類に大別されるが、これらの作品を執筆するにあたり、シェイクスピアが資料として主に用いたテキストは2つある。前者の材源はプルタルコスの『英雄伝』(トマス・ノース (Thomas North) による1579年の英語訳[17])であり、後者が依拠しているのはラファエル・ホリンシェッドの『年代記』("The Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland"1587年の第2版)である。『年代記』は史劇だけでなく『マクベス』や『リア王』の素材ともなっている[18]。 またシェイクスピアは同時代の劇作家(シェイクスピアと同年の生まれだが早くから才能を現していた)クリストファー・マーロウの文体を借用していると考えられることもある[19]。 シェイクスピアの作品の中でも、劇作法、テーマ、舞台設定などの点からみて最も独創的といえるのは『テンペスト』である[20]


シェイクスピアの戯曲の正確な創作年代については多くの議論がある。またシェイクスピアが生前に自作の信頼できる版を刊行しなかったという事実により、シェイクスピア作品の多くがはらんでいるテキスト上の問題が起きている。すなわち、すべての作品の刊本の版ごとに、多かれ少なかれ原文に異同のある異本が存在しているのである(このため、シェイクスピアが実際に書いた部分と別人による改変を特定ないし推定する本文批評が現代の研究者や編者にとって大きな問題となる)。ベン・ジョンソンのような他の劇作家と異なり、シェイクスピアは自作の定本を刊行することに関心を払っていなかったと考えられる[21]。 こうした異本は、底本がシェイクスピアの自筆原稿であったか筆耕者の手を経た清書稿であったかにかかわらず、印刷業者のミスや植字工の誤読、原稿の読み違えで正しい順に詩行が配置されなかったことなどにより生じる[22]

一つの作品について極端に異なる二つのヴァージョンが存在する場合に問題は深刻になる。バッド・クォートと呼ばれる、ズタズタに切り刻まれた粗悪な刊本が数多く存在するが、これらはファースト・フォリオの編者が「盗用された海賊版」と非難しているものと考えられる[23]。それほど台無しにされたわけではない異本については、一概に無視できないものがある。例えば、『リア王』の四折判と二折判には大きな違いが見られる。伝統的に、編者は両方のヴァージョンからすべての場面を取り入れて融合することにしている。しかし、マドレーン・ドーラン(Madeleine Doran)以降、両方を別物とみなし、『リア王』という1つの戯曲に2つのヴァージョンの存在を認めるという動きもある。ゲイリー・テイラーとロジャー・ウォーレンは共著 "The Division of the Kingdom" において、『リア王』に見られるような異同は、1つのテキストが異なる形で刊行されたのではなく、テキスト自体が異なる形で2つ存在していたためだという説を提唱している[24]。 この仮説は一般に広く受け入れられてはいないが、その後数十年間の批評や編集の指針に影響を与えており、ケンブリッジ版とオックスフォード版の全集では、『リア王』の四折判と二折判のテキストが両方とも別個に収録されている。


シェイクスピアの劇作家としての活動は1592年頃から始まる。フィリップ・ヘンズロウの日記(当時の劇壇の事情を知る重要な資料として知られる)に『ヘンリー六世 第1部』と思われる戯曲が1592年3月から翌年1月にかけて15回上演されたという記録が残っているほか、同じく1592年にはロバート・グリーンの著書に新進劇作家シェイクスピアへの諷刺と思われる記述がある。これらが劇作家としてのシェイクスピアに関する最初の記録である。



















  • 日本千葉県南房総市に、シェイクスピアの生家が忠実に再現されている公園がある[25]
  • ロンドン橋の近くに、グローブ座が再建されている。[26]
  • 2005年4月21日、イギリス国立肖像画美術館は、多くの本の表紙を飾るシェイクスピアの肖像画『フラワー・シェイクスピア』の描かれた時期が生存中の作ではなく、その死後約200年後の1814年 - 1840年頃であると確認したと発表した。1814年頃以降に使用され始めた顔料が含まれていたためで、それは修復に使われたものではないという。美術館では、この年代は作品への関心が再燃した時期で、貴重な歴史的資料であることは変わりはないとしている。
  • 2009年3月9日、生前の肖像画と考えられるものが発見された。
  • 2002年BBCが行った「偉大な英国人」投票で第5位となった。
  • 1970年から1993年にかけて用いられた20UKポンド紙幣に肖像が描かれている。





  1. ^ A Shakespeare Genealogy
  2. ^ a b c d Stephen Greenblatt, "Will in the World" Quebecor World, Fairfield; United States, 2004, pp. 25 - 28
  3. ^ Honan, Park. Shakespeare: A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 43.
  4. ^ E. A. J. Honigmann, "Shakespeare: The Lost Years" Manchester University Press; 2nd edition, 1999, p. 1.
  5. ^ a b c "The Lost Years", Shakespeare Timeline.
  6. ^ David Aaron Murray, "In Search of Shakespeare", Crisis Magazine
  7. ^ Michael Wood, "In Search of Shakespeare" BBC Books, 2003, ISBN 0-563-52141-4 p.80
  8. ^ William Allan Neilson and Ashley Horace Thorndike, "The Facts About Shakespeare", The Macmillan Company, 1913.
  9. ^ Stephen Greenblatt, "Will in the World", Quebecor World, Fairfield, United States, 2004.
  10. ^ 1598年刊の『恋の骨折り損』において、初めて著者名が明記された。それ以前の作品は著者名が記されていなかったか、もしくは1623年ファースト・フォリオに収録されるまで未刊のままだった。
  11. ^ e-notes.com on Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, Shakespeare at e-notes.
  12. ^ Article on Shakespeare's Globe Theater Zee News on Shakespeare, accessed Jan. 23, 2007.
  13. ^ Jonnie Patricia Mobley, William Shakespeare, "Manual for Hamlet: Access to Shakespeare", Lorenz Educational Publishers, 1996, p. 5.
  14. ^ Graham Holderness, "Cultural Shakespeare: Essays in the Shakespeare Myth" University of Hertfordshire Press, 2001, pp. 152-54.
  15. ^ Leon Harold Craig, Of Philosophers and Kings: Political Philosophy in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" and "King Lear" University of Toronto Press, 2003, p. 3.
  16. ^ G. K. Hunter, "English Drama 1586-1642: The Age of Shakespeare". Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, 494-496.
  17. ^ Plutarch's Parallel Lives
  18. ^ Richard Dutton, Jean Howard ed., "A Companion to Shakespeare's Works: The Histories", Blackwell Publishing, 2003, p. 147.)
  19. ^ Brian Robert Morris, "Christopher Marlowe". 1968, pp. 65-94. ハロルド・ブロークスのエッセイにおいて、マーロウの『エドワード二世』がシェイクスピアの『リチャード三世』に影響を与えたと述べている。しかしゲイリー・テイラーは "William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion" p. 116. において、2人の文体が類似しているように見えるのはありふれた決まり文句ばかりであると反論している。
  20. ^ Patrick Murphy, "The Tempest: Critical Essays", Routledge, 2001.
  21. ^ Richard Dutton, "The Birth of the Author," in Cedric Brown and Arthur Marotti, eds, "Texts and Cultural Change in Early Modern England" (London: Macmillan, 1997): p. 161.
  22. ^ Fredson Bowers, "On Editing Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Dramatists". Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955, p.8-10.
  23. ^ Alfred W. Pollard, "Shakespeare Quartos and Folios". London: Metheun, 1909, xi.
  24. ^ Gary Taylor and Michael Warren, "The Division of the Kingdoms". Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1983.
  25. ^ シェイクスピア・カントリー・パーク
  26. ^ [1]



Copyright(c) 2014: ぷらっとさんぽ(-Prattosampo-)   江守孝三(Emori Kozo)