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論語のすべて 【論語はあらゆる教育の聖書(バイブル)】 論語は日本の文化

學而第一 為政第二 八佾第三 里仁第四 公冶長第五 雍也第六 述而第七 泰伯第八 子罕第九 郷党第十
先進第十一 顔淵第十二 子路第十三 憲問第十四 衛霊公第十五 季氏第十六 陽貨第十七 微子第十八 子張第十九 尭曰第二十

CONFUCIAN ANALECTS

論 語

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學而 第一

01-01
The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?
"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?
"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"
子曰、學而時習之、不亦説乎、有朋自遠方来、不亦楽乎、人不知而不慍、不亦君子乎
いわく、まなんでときこれをならう。またよろこばしからずや。ともあり、遠方えんぽうよりたる。またたのしからずや。ひとらずしていきどおらず、また君子くんしならずや。

01-02
The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"
有子曰、其爲人也、孝弟而好犯上者、鮮矣、不好犯上而好作乱者、未之有也、君子務本、本立而道生、孝弟也者、其爲仁之本與、
有子ゆうしいわく、そのひととなりや孝悌こうていにして、かみ犯すこのものすくなしかみおかすことをこのまずして、らんをなすをこのものはいまだこれあらざるなり。君子くんしもとつとむ。もとちてみちしょうず。孝悌こうていなるものはそれじんもとたるか。

01-03
The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."
子曰、巧言令色、鮮矣仁、
いわく、巧言こうげん令色れいしょくには、すくないかなじん

01-04
The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."
曾子曰、吾日三省吾身、爲人謀而忠乎、與朋友交言而不信乎、傳不習乎
曾子そうしいわく、われはたびわがかえりみる。ひとのためにはかりてちゅうならざるか。朋友ほうゆうまじわりてしんならざるか。ならわざるをつたうるか。

01-05
The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."
子曰、道千乘之國、敬事而信、節用而愛人、使民以時、
いわく、千乗せんじょうの国をおさむるには、事をつつしみて信あり、用をせっして人を愛し、民を使うにときをもってす。

01-06
The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."
子曰、弟子入則孝、出則弟、謹而信、汎愛衆而親仁、行有餘力、則以學文、
いわく、弟子ていし、入りてはすなわち孝、出でてはすなわちてい、謹みて信あり、ひろく衆を愛して仁に親しみ、おこなって余力あればすなわちもってぶんを学べ。

01-07
Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.
子夏曰、賢賢易色、事父母能竭其力、事君能致其身、與朋友交、言而有信、雖曰未學、吾必謂之學矣、
子夏曰く、「賢賢たるかなとかげの色や」とあり。父母につかえてはよくその力をつくし、君に事えてよくその身をいたし、朋友と交わり、言いて信あらば、いまだ学ばずというといえども、われは必ずこれをまなびたりといわん。

01-08
The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
"Have no friends not equal to yourself.
"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."
子曰、君子不重則不威、學則不固、主忠信、無友不如己者、過則勿憚改、
いわく、君子おもからざればすなわちあらず。学べばならず。忠信を主とし、おのれにしかざる者を友とするなかれ。あやまちてはあらたむるにはばかることなかれ。

01-09
The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."
曾子曰、愼終追遠、民徳歸厚矣
そうし曰く、「終りを慎しみ、遠きを追う」とあり、民の徳、あつきにせしかな。

01-10
Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"
Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"
子禽問於子貢曰、夫子至於是邦也、必聞其政、求之與、抑與之與、
子貢曰、夫子温良恭儉譲以得之、夫子之求之也、其諸異乎人之求之與、
しきん、子貢に問うて曰く、夫子ふうしのこのくにに至るや、必ずそのまつりごとを聞く。これを求めたるか、そもそもこれを与えられしか。子貢曰く、夫子は温良恭倹譲おんりょうきょうけんじょうにしてもってこれを得たり。夫子ふうしのこれを求めしや、それこれ人のこれを求むるとことなるか。

01-11
The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."
子曰、父在觀其志、父沒觀其行、三年無改於父之道、可謂孝矣、
いわく、父いますときはその志を、父ぼっすればそのおこないを観る。三年父の道をあらたむることなし。こうというべきなり。

01-12
The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.
"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."
有子曰、禮之用和爲貴、先王之道斯爲美、小大由之、
有所不行、知和而和、不以禮節之、亦不可行也、
有子ゆうし曰く、礼をこれ用うるには、和をたっとしとなす。先王せんおうの道もこれをとなせり。小大しょうだいにこれによらばおこなわれざるところあればなり。を知りて和するも礼をもってこれをせっせざれば、またおこなうべからざるなり。

01-13
The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."
有子曰、信近於義、言可復也、恭近於禮、遠恥辱也、因不失其親、亦可宗也、
有子ゆうし曰く、信は義に近ければ、言うことむべきなり。きょうは礼に近づけば、恥辱ちじょくに遠ざかるなり。いんにてそのしんを失わざれば、またたっとぶべきなり。

01-14
The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."
子曰、君子食無求飽、居無求安、敏於事而愼於言、就有道而正焉、可謂好學也已矣
いわく、君子は食にくを求むるなく、きょやすきを求むるなし。事にびんにして言に慎しみ、有道ゆうどうに就いてただす。がくこのむというべきのみ。

01-15
Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."
Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."
The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."
子貢曰、貧而無諂、富而無驕、何如、子曰、可也、未若貧時樂道、富而好禮者也、
子貢曰、詩云、如切如磋、如琢如磨、其斯之謂與、
子曰、賜也、始可與言詩已矣、告諸往而知來者也、
子貢しこう曰く、貧にしてへつらうなく、富みておごるなきはいかん。いわく、可なり。いまだ貧にして楽しみ、富みて礼を好む者にしかざるなり。子貢曰く、詩に云う、「せっするがごとくするがごとく、たくするがごとく磨するがごとし」と。それこれのいか。いわく、や、始めてともに詩を言うべきのみ。これにくを告げて、来るを知るものなればなり。

01-16
The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."
子曰、不患人之不己知、患己不知人也、
いわく、人のおのれを知らざるをうれえず、人を知らざるをうれうるなり。

[TOP]


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為政 第二

02-01
The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."
子曰、爲政以徳、譬如北辰居其所、而衆星共之、
いわく、まつりごとをなすに徳をもってす。たとえば北辰ほくしんのその所に居て衆星しゅうせいのこれにむかうがごときなり。

02-02
The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"
子曰、詩三百、一言以蔽之、曰思無邪、
いわく、は三百、一言にしてもってこれをおおえば、曰く、思いよこしまなし。

02-03
The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.
"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."
子曰、道之以政、齊之以刑、民免而無恥、道之以徳、齊之以禮、有恥且格、
いわく、これをみちびくにまつりごとをもってし、これをととのうるにけいをもってすれば、民まぬがれて恥なし。これをみちびくに徳をもってし、これをととのうるに礼をもってすれば、恥ありてかつただ

02-04
The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.
"At thirty, I stood firm.
"At forty, I had no doubts.
"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.
"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.
"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."
子曰、吾十有五而志乎學、三十而立、四十而不惑、五十而知天命、六十而耳順、七十而從心所欲、不踰矩、
いわく、われ十有五にして学に志し、三十にして立ち、四十にしてまどわず。五十にして天命を知り、六十にして耳したがう。七十にして心の欲するところに従ってのりえず。

02-05
Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."
Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"
Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."
孟懿子問孝、子曰、無違、樊遲御、子告之曰、孟孫問孝於我、我對曰無違、樊遲曰、何謂也、子曰、生事之以禮、死葬之以禮、祭之以禮、
懿子もういし、孝を問う。いわく、たがうことなかれ、と。樊遲はんちぎょたり。子これに告げて曰く、孟孫もうそん、孝をわれに問いしに、われこたえて、たがうことなかれと曰えり。樊遲はんち曰く、なんのいいぞや。いわく、生きてはこれにつかうるに礼をもってし、死してはこれをほうむるに礼をもってし、これをまつるにれいをもってせよとなり。

02-06
Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."
孟武伯問孝、子曰、父母唯其疾之憂、
武伯もうぶはく、孝を問う。いわく、父母はただそのやまいをこれうれう。

02-07
Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"
子游問孝、子曰、今之孝者、是謂能養、至於犬馬、皆能有養、不敬何以別、
子游しゆう、孝を問う。いわく、今の孝なる者はこれよく養うをいう。犬馬けんばいたるまで、みなよく養うことあり。けいせずんば何をもってわかたんや。

02-08
Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"
子夏問孝、子曰、色難、有事弟子服其勞、有酒食先生饌、曾是以爲孝乎、
しか、孝を問う。いわく、いろかたし。事あれば弟子ていしその労に服し、酒食しゅしあれば先生にせんす。すなわちこれもってこうとなさんや。

02-09
The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."
子曰、吾與囘言終日、不違如愚、退而省其私、亦足以發、囘也不愚、
いわく、われ、かいと言う。終日たがわず、なるがごとし。退いてそのわたくしせいすれば、またもって発するにる。回や愚ならず。

02-10
The Master said, "See what a man does.
"Mark his motives.
"Examine in what things he rests.
"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"
子曰、視其所以、觀其所由、察其所安、人焉廋哉、人焉廋哉、
いわく、そのもってするところを、そのるところを、その安んずるところをさっすれば、人いずくんぞかくさんや、人いずくんぞかくさんや。

02-11
The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."
子曰、温故而知新、可以爲師矣、
いわく、ふるきをたずて新しきを知れば、もって師たるべし。
02-12
The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."
子曰、君子不器、
いわく、君子はならず。
02-13
Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."
子貢問君子、子曰、先行其言、而後從之、
子貢しこう、君子を問う。いわく、まずおこなえ。そのげんはしかるのちにこれにしたがう。
02-14
The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."
子曰、君子周而不比、小人比而不周、
いわく、君子はしゅうしてせず。小人しょうじんは比して周せず。

02-15
The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."
子曰、學而不思則罔、思而不學則殆、
いわく、学んで思わざればくらし。思って学ばざればあやうし。
02-16
The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"
子曰、攻乎異端、斯害也已矣、
いわく、異端をおさむるはこれ害なるのみ。

02-17
The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."
子曰、由、誨女知之乎、知之爲知之、不知爲不知、是知也、
いわく、ゆうや、なんじにこれをることをおしえんか。これをるをばこれをるとなし、らざるをらずとなす。これれるなり。

02-18
Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.
The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."
子張學干祿、子曰、多聞闕疑、愼言其餘、則寡尤、多見闕殆、愼行其餘、則寡悔、言寡尤行寡悔、祿在其中矣、
子張しちょうろくもとむるを学ばんとす。いわく、多く聞きて疑わしきをき、つつしんでそのあまりを言えばとがすくなし。多く見てあやうきをき、慎んでその余りを行えばすくなし。言ってとがすくなく、おこなって悔いすくなければ、禄そのうちにあり。

02-19
The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."
哀公問曰、何爲則民服、孔子對曰、擧直錯諸枉、則民服、擧枉錯諸直、則民不服、
哀公あいこう問うて曰わく、いかにすればすなわち民ふくせん。孔子こたえて曰く、なおきを挙げて、これをまがれるにけば民服せん。まがれるを挙げて、これを直きにけば、民ふくせざらん。

02-20
Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."
季康子問、使民敬忠以勸、如之何、子曰、臨之以莊則敬、孝慈則忠、擧善而教不能則勸、
季康子きこうし、民をして敬忠けいちゅうにして、もってすすめしめんにはこれをいかんせんか、と問う。いわく、これに臨むに荘をもってすれば敬し、孝慈こうじならしむれば忠なり。善を挙げて不能を教えしむればすすまん。

02-21
Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"
The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"
或謂孔子曰、子奚不爲政、子曰、書云、孝于惟孝、友于兄弟、施於有政、是亦爲政也、奚其爲爲政、
るひと孔子にいて曰く、はなんすれぞまつりごとをなさざるや。いわく、書に云う、孝なるかこれ孝、兄弟けいていに友なり、有政ゆうせいに施す、と。これまた政をなすなり。なんすれぞそれまつりごとをなさずとなさんや。

02-22
The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"
子曰、人而無信、不知其可也、大車無輗、小車無軏、其何以行之哉、
いわく、人にして信なくんば、その可なるを知らざるなり。大車にげいなく、小車にげつなくんば、それ何をもってこれをらんや。

02-23
Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.
Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."
子張問、十世可知也、子曰、殷因於夏禮、所損益可知也、周因於殷禮、所損益可知也、其或繼周者、雖百世亦可知也、
子張しちょう問う、十世じゅっせい知るべきか。いわく、いんの礼による、損益そんえきするところ知るべきなり。しゅういんの礼による、損益そんえきするところ知るべきなり。それ周をぐ者あらんに、百世ひゃくせいといえども知るべきなり。

02-24
The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.
"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."
子曰、非其鬼而祭之、諂也、見義不爲、無勇也、
いわく、そのにあらずしてこれを祭るはへつらいなり。義を見てなさざるはゆうなきなり。

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八佾 第三

03-01
Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"
孔子謂季氏、八佾舞於庭、是可忍也、孰不可忍也、

孔子、季氏きしう、八佾はちいつていわす、これにして忍ぶべくんば、いずれをかしのぶべからざらんや。

03-02
The three families used the Yungode, while the vessels were being removed, at the conclusion of the sacrifice. The Master said, "'Assisting are the princes;-the son of heaven looks profound and grave';-what application can these words have in the hall of the three
families?"
三家者以雍徹、子曰、相維辟公、天子穆穆、奚取於三家之堂、
三家者さんかしゃようをもっててっす。いわく、たすくるはこれ辟公へきこう、天子は穆穆ぼくぼくたり、とあり。いずくんぞ三家のどうらん。

03-03
The Master said, "If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with music?"
子曰、人而不仁、如禮何、人而不仁、如樂何、
いわく、人にして不仁ふじんならば、礼をいかん。人にして不仁ならば、がくをいかん。

03-04
Lin Fang asked what was the first thing to be attended to in ceremonies.
The Master said, "A great question indeed! "In festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than extravagant. In the ceremonies of mourning, it is better that there be deep sorrow than in minute attention to observances."
林放問禮之本、子曰、大哉問、禮與其奢也寧儉、喪與其易也寧戚、
りんぽう、礼のもとを問う。いわく、大なるかな問いや。礼はそのおごらんよりはむしろ倹なれ。はそのととのわんよりはむしろいた

03-05
The Master said, "The rude tribes of the east and north have their princes, and are not like the States of our great land which are without them."
子曰、夷狄之有君、不如諸夏之亡也、
いわく、夷狄いてきにも君あり、諸夏しょかのなきがごとくならず

03-06
The chief of the Chi family was about to sacrifice to the T'ai mountain. The Master said to Zan Yu, "Can you not save him from this?" He answered, "I cannot." Confucius said, "Alas! will you say that the T'ai mountain is not so discerning as Lin Fang?"
季氏旅於泰山、子謂冉有曰、女不能救與、對曰、不能、子曰、嗚呼、曾謂泰山不如林放乎、
季氏きし泰山たいざんりょす。子、冉有ぜんゆうに謂いて曰く、なんじ救うあたわざるか。こたえて曰く、あたわず。いわく、嗚呼ああかつて泰山を謂うこと、林放りんぽうのごとくならざりしか

03-07
The Master said, "The student of virtue has no contentions. If it be said he cannot avoid them, shall this be in archery? But he bows complaisantly to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In his contention, he is still the Chun-tsze."
子曰、君子無所爭、必也射乎、揖譲而升下、而飮、其爭也君子、
いわく、君子は争うところなし。必ずやしゃか。揖譲ゆうじょうしてのぼり、くだりて飲む。その争いや君子なり。

03-08
Tsze-hsia asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the passage-'The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain ground for the colors?'"
The Master said, "The business of laying on the colors follows the preparation of the plain ground."
"Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?" The Master said, "It is Shang who can bring out my meaning. Now I can begin to talk about the odes with him."
子夏問曰、巧笑倩兮、美目盼兮、素以爲絢兮、何謂也、子曰、繪事後乎、子曰、起予者商也、始可與言詩已矣、
しか、問うて曰く、巧笑倩こうしょうせんたり、美目びもく?はんたり、もってあやとなす、と。なんのいぞや。いわく、絵事かいじは素ののちにす。曰く、礼はのちなるか。いわく、予を起す者は商なり。始めてともにを言うべきのみ。

03-09
The Master said, "I could describe the ceremonies of the Hsia dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently attest my words. I could describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. They cannot do so because of the insufficiency of their records and wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them in support of my words."
子曰、夏禮吾能言之、杞不足徴也、殷禮吾能言之、宋不足徴也、文献不足故也、足則吾能徴之矣、
いわく、の礼はわれよくこれを言わんとするも、ちょうするに足らざるなり。いんの礼はわれよくこれを言わんとするも、そうは徴するに足らざるなり。文献の足らざるがゆえなり。足らばわれよくこれをちょうせん。

03-10
The Master said, "At the great sacrifice, after the pouring out of the libation, I have no wish to look on."
子曰、禘自既灌而往者、吾不欲觀之矣、
いわく、ていはすでにかんしてより而往のちは、われ、これをるを欲せず。

03-11
Some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice. The Master said, "I do not know. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look on this"-pointing to his palm.
或問禘之説、子曰、不知也、知其説者之於天下也、其如示諸斯乎、指其掌、
あるひとていの説を問う。いわく、知らざるなり。その説を知る者の天下てんかにおけるや、それこれをここに示すがごときか、と。そのたなごころせり。

03-12
He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were present.
The Master said, "I consider my not being present at the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice."
祭如在、祭神如神在、子曰、吾不與祭、如不祭、
祭ること祭にあるがごとくすれば、神は神いますがごとし、とあり。いわく、われあずからざれば、祭るも祭らざるがごときなり。

03-13
Wang-sun Chia asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the saying, 'It is better to pay court to the furnace then to the southwest corner?'"
The Master said, "Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray."
王孫賈問曰、與其媚於奧、寧媚於竈、何謂、子曰、不然、獲罪於天、無所祷也、
王孫賈おうそんか、問うて曰く、それおうびんよりは、むしろかまどに媚びよ、とはなんのいぞや。いわく、しからず、罪を天にれば、?いのるところなきなり。

03-14
The Master said, "Chau had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties. How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow Chau."
子曰、周監於二代、郁郁乎文哉、吾從周、
いわく、周は二代にかんがみて郁郁いくいくとして文なるかな。われは周にしたがわん。

03-15
The Master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about everything. Some one said, "Who say that the son of the man of Tsau knows the rules of propriety! He has entered the grand temple and asks about everything." The Master heard the remark, and said, "This is a rule of propriety."
子入大廟、毎事問、或曰、孰謂鄹人之知禮乎、入大廟、毎事問、子聞之曰、是禮也、
、大廟に入り、事ごとに問う。或るひとの曰く、れか謂う、鄹人すうひと礼を知ると。大廟に入りてことごとに問えり。これを聞きて曰く、これれいなり。

03-16
The Master said, "In archery it is not going through the leather which is the principal thing;-because people's strength is not equal. This was the old way."
子曰、射不主皮、爲力不同科、古之道也、
いわく、しゃしゅとせず。力をなすにを同じくせずいにしえの道なり。

03-17
Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first day of each month.
The Master said, "Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony."
子貢欲去告朔之餼 羊、子曰、賜也、女愛其羊、我愛其禮、
子貢しこう告朔こくさく餼羊きようを去らんと欲す。いわく、や、なんじはその羊をおしむ、われはその礼をおしむ。

03-18
The Master said, "The full observance of the rules of propriety in serving one's prince is accounted by people to be flattery."
子曰、事君盡禮、人以爲諂也、
いわく、きみつかうるに礼をくせば、人はもってへつらいとなすなり。

03-19
The Duke Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers, and how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, "A prince should employ his minister according to according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness."
定公問、君使臣、臣事君、如之何、孔子對曰、君使臣以禮、臣事君以忠、
ていこう問う、きみ、臣を使い、臣、君につかうるには、これをいかんせん。孔子こたえて曰く、きみ、臣を使うに礼をもってし、臣、君につかうるに忠をもってす。

03-20
The Master said, "The Kwan Tsu is expressive of enjoyment without being licentious, and of grief without being hurtfully excessive."
子曰、關雎、樂而不淫、哀而不傷
いわく、関雎かんしょは楽しんでいんせず、かなしんでやぶらず。

03-21
The Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the altars of the spirits of the land. Tsai Wo replied, "The Hsia sovereign planted the pine tree about them; the men of the Yin planted the cypress; and the men of the Chau planted the chestnut tree, meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe."
When the Master heard it, he said, "Things that are done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless to blame."
哀公問社於宰我、宰我對曰、夏后氏以松、殷人以柏、周人以栗、曰、使民戰栗也、子聞之曰、成事不説、遂事不諌、既徃不咎、
哀公あいこうしゃ宰我さいがに問う。宰我、こたえて曰く、夏后氏かこうしは松をもちい、殷人いんひとはくもちい、周人しゅうひとりつもちう。民をして戦栗せんりつせしむるをいうなり、と。子これを聞いて曰く、成事せいじは説かず、遂事すいじいさめず、既往きおうとがめず。

03-22
The Master said, "Small indeed was the capacity of Kwan Chung!"
Some one said, "Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?" "Kwan," was the reply, "had the San Kwei, and his officers performed no double duties; how can he be considered parsimonious?"
"Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?" The Master said, "The princes of States have a screen intercepting the view at their gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. The princes of States on any friendly meeting between two of them, had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. Kwan had also such a stand. If Kwan knew the rules of propriety, who does not know them?"
子曰、管仲之器小哉、或曰、管仲儉乎、曰、管氏有三歸、官事不攝、焉得儉乎、曰然則管仲知禮乎、曰、邦君樹塞門、管氏亦樹塞門、邦君爲兩君之好、有反沾、管氏亦有反沾、管氏而知禮、孰不知禮、
いわく、管仲かんちゅううつわは小なるかな。あるひと曰く、管仲はけんなるか。曰く、管氏に三帰さんきあり、官事かんじせっせず、いずくんぞけんなるを得ん。しからばすなわち管仲は礼を知るか。曰く、邦君ほうくんじゅもて門をふさぐ、管氏もまた樹もて門を塞ぐ。邦君が両君のよしみをなすには反?はんてんあり、管氏もまた反?はんてんあり。管氏にして礼を知らば、たれか礼をらざらんや。

03-23
The Master instructing the grand music master of Lu said, "How to play music may be known. At the commencement of the piece, all the parts should sound together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony while severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the conclusion."
子語魯大師樂曰、樂其可知已、始作翕如也、從之純如也、皦如也、繹如也、以成、
子、大師たいしがくを語りて曰く、楽はそれ知るべきなり。始めおこすや翕如きゅうじょたり。これに従うこと純如じゅんじょたり。皦如きょうじょたり。繹如えきじょたり。もって成る。

03-24
The border warden at Yi requested to be introduced to the Master, saying, "When men of superior virtue have come to this, I have never been denied the privilege of seeing them." The followers of the sage introduced him, and when he came out from the interview, he said, "My friends, why are you distressed by your master's loss of office? The kingdom has long been without the principles of truth and right; Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its wooden tongue."
儀封人請見、曰、君子之至於斯也、吾未嘗不得見也、從者見之、出曰、二三子何患者於喪乎、天下之無道也久矣、天將以夫子爲木鐸、
封人ほうじんまみえんことをうて曰く、君子のここに至るや、われいまだかつて得てえずんばあらず、と。従者じゅうしゃ、これをまみえしむ。でて曰く、二三子にさんし、なんぞうしなうをうれえんや。天下の道なきや久し。天、まさに夫子ふうしをもって木鐸ぼくたくとなさんとするなり。

03-25
The Master said of the Shao that it was perfectly beautiful and also perfectly good. He said of the Wu that it was perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good.
子謂韶、盡美矣、叉盡善也、謂武、盡美矣、未盡善也、
子、しょうを謂う。美をつくし、また善を尽せり。を謂う。美を尽せり、いまだ善をつくさず。

03-26
The Master said, "High station filled without indulgent generosity; ceremonies performed without reverence; mourning conducted without sorrow;-wherewith should I contemplate such ways?"
子曰、居上不寛、爲禮不敬、臨喪不哀、吾何以觀之哉、
いわく、かみにおりてかんならず、礼をなしてつつしまず、に臨んでかなしまずんば、われ何をもってこれをんや。

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里仁 第四

04-01
The Master said, "It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. If a man in selecting a residence do not fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise?"
子曰、里仁爲美、擇不處仁、焉得知、
いわく、さとじんなるをしとなす。えらんで仁にらずんば、いずくんぞ知なることをん。

04-02
The Master said, "Those who are without virtue cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise desire virtue."
子曰、不仁者不可以久處約、不可以長處樂、仁者安仁、知者利仁、
いわく、不仁者ふじんしゃはもって久しくやくるべからず、もって長く楽しみに処るべからず。仁者じんしゃは仁にやすんじ、知者は仁をとす。

04-03
The Master said, "It is only the truly virtuous man, who can love, or who can hate, others."
子曰、惟仁者能好人、能惡人
いわく、ただ仁者じんしゃのみ、よく人を好み、よく人をにくむ。

04-04
The Master said, "If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice of wickedness."
子曰、苟志於仁矣、無惡也、
いわく、いやしくも仁に志さば、にくむなきなり。

04-05
The Master said, "Riches and honors are what men desire. If they cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike. If they cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should not be avoided.
"If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the requirements of that name?
"The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it."
子曰、富與貴、是人之所欲也、不以其道得之、不處也、貧與賎、是人之所惡也、不以其道得之、不去也、君子去仁、惡乎成名、君子無終食之間違仁、造次必於是、巓沛必於是、
いわく、富とたっときとはこれ人の欲するところなり。らざるなり。貧といやしきとはこれ人の悪むところなり。その道をもってこれを得しにあらざればらざるなり。君子は仁を去りて、いずくにか名を成さん。君子は終食の間も仁にたがうなく、造次ぞうじにも必ずここにおいてし、?沛てんぱいにも必ずここにおいてす。

04-06
The Master said, "I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue, would esteem nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous, would practice virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person.
"Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient.
"Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it."
子曰、我未見好仁者惡不仁者、好仁者無以尚之、惡不仁者其爲仁矣、不使不仁者加乎其身、有能一日用其力於仁矣乎、我未見力不足者、蓋有之乎、我未之見也
いわく、われはいまだじんを好む者、不仁ふじんにくむ者を見ず。仁を好む者はもってこれにくわうるなし。不仁を悪む者は、それ仁たるなり。不仁者ふじんしゃをしてその身に加えしめざればなり。よく一日いちじつもその力を仁にもちうるあらんか。われはいまだ力のらざる者を見ず。けだしこれあらんか、われはいまだこれをざるなり。

04-07
The Master said, "The faults of men are characteristic of the class to which they belong. By observing a man's faults, it may be known that he is virtuous."
子曰、人之過也、各於其黨、觀過斯知仁矣、
いわく、人のあやまちや、おのおのそのたぐいにおいてす。過ちを観て、ここにひとを知る。

04-08
The Master said, "If a man in the morning hear the right way, he may die in the evening hear regret."
子曰、朝聞道、夕死可矣、
いわく、あしたに道を聞けば、ゆうべに死すともなり。

04-09
The Master said, "A scholar, whose mind is set on truth, and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed with."
子曰、士志於道、而恥惡衣惡食者、未足與議也、
いわく、士、道に志して、悪衣あくい悪食あくしょくを恥ずる者は、いまだともにはかるに足らざるなり。

04-10
The Master said, "The superior man, in the world, does not set his mind either for anything, or against anything; what is right he will follow."
子曰、君子之於天下也、無適也、無莫也、義之與比、
いわく、君子の天下におけるや、てきなきなり。ばくなきなり。義をこれともにす。

04-11
The Master said, "The superior man thinks of virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favors which he may receive."
子曰、君子懷徳、小人懷土、君子懷刑、小人懷惠、
いわく、君子、徳をおもえば、小人はを懐い、君子、刑を懐えば、小人はけいを懐う。

04-12
The Master said: "He who acts with a constant view to his own advantage will be much murmured against."
子曰、放於利而行、多怨、
いわく、利をほしいままにして行えば、怨みを多くす。

04-13
The Master said, "If a prince is able to govern his kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will he have? If he cannot govern it with that complaisance, what has he to do with the rules of propriety?"
子曰、能以禮讓爲國乎、何有、不能以禮讓爲國、如禮何、
いわく、よく礼譲れいじょうをもってすれば、国をおさむるにおいて、何かあらん。よく礼譲をもって国をおさめずんば、礼をいかんせん。

04-14
The Master said, "A man should say, I am not concerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may fit myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek to be worthy to be known."
子曰、不患無位、患所以立、不患莫己知、求爲可知也、
いわく、くらいなきをうれえず、もって立つなきを患う。己を知るものなきを患えず、知らるべきなきを患うるなり

04-15
The Master said, "Shan, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity." The disciple Tsang replied, "Yes."
The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, "What do his words mean?" Tsang said, "The doctrine of our master is to be true to the principles-of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others,-this and nothing more."
子曰、參乎、吾道一以貫之哉、曾子曰、唯、子出、門人問曰、何謂也、曾子曰、夫子之道、忠恕而已無、
いわく、しんや、わが道はいつもってこれをつらぬく。曾子曰く、。子ず。門人、問うて曰く、なんのいぞや。曾子曰く、夫子ふうしの道は忠恕ちゅうじょのみ。

04-16
The Master said, "The mind of the superior man is conversant with righteousness; the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain."
子曰、君子喩於義、小人喩於利、
いわく、君子は義にさとり、小人は利にさとる。

04-17
The Master said, "When we see men of worth, we should think of equaling them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves."
子曰、見賢思齊焉、見不賢而内自省也、
いわく、けんを見てはひとしからんことを思い、不賢ふけんを見てはうちにみずからかえりみるなり。

04-18
The Master said, "In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased degree of reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and should they punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur."
子曰、事父母幾諌、見志不從、叉敬不違、勞而不怨、
いわく、父母につかうるには幾諫きかんす、志の従わざるを見ては、また敬してたがわず、労してうらみず。

04-19
The Master said, "While his parents are alive, the son may not go abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, he must have a fixed place to which he goes."
子曰、父母在、子不遠遊、遊必有方、
いわく、父母いませば、遠くに遊ばず。遊ぶには必ずほうあり。

04-20
The Master said, "If the son for three years does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."
子曰、三年無改於父之道、可謂孝矣、
いわく、三年、父の道をあらたむるなきは、孝とうべし。

04-21
The Master said, "The years of parents may by no means not be kept in the memory, as an occasion at once for joy and for fear."
子曰、父母之年、不可不知也、一則以喜、一則以懼、
いわく、父母の年は知らざるべからざるなり。いつにはもって喜び、一にはもっておそる。

04-22
The Master said, "The reason why the ancients did not readily give utterance to their words, was that they feared lest their actions should not come up to them."
子曰、古者、言之不出、恥躬之不逮也、
いわく、いにしえは、これを言わんとしてださず。およばざるを恥ずればなり。

04-23
The Master said, "The cautious seldom err."
子曰、以約失之者、鮮矣、
いわく、やくをもってこれを失う者はすくなし。

04-24
The Master said, "The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct."
子曰、君子欲訥於言、而敏於行、
いわく、君子は言にとつにして、行ないにびんならんことをほっす。

04-25
The Master said, "Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practices it will have neighbors."
子曰、徳不孤、必有鄰、
いわく、徳はならず、必ずとなりあり。

04-26
Tsze-yu said, "In serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship distant."
子游曰、事君數斯辱矣、朋友數斯疎矣、
子游しゆう曰く、きみつかえてしばしばすれば、ここにはずかしめられ、朋友にしばしばすれば、ここにうとんぜらる。

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公冶長 第五

05-01
The Master said of Kung-ye Ch'ang that he might be wived; although he was put in bonds, he had not been guilty of any crime. Accordingly, he gave him his own daughter to wife.
子謂公冶長、可妻也、雖在縲紲之中、非其罪也、以其子妻之、
子、公冶長こうやちょうう。あわすべきなり。縲絏るいせつうちにありといえども、その罪にあらざるなり、と。そのをもってこれにあわす。子、南容なんようを謂う。くにに道あれば廃せられず、邦に道なきも、刑戮けいりくより免かる、と。その兄の子をもってこれにあわす。

05-02
Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well governed he would not be out of office, and if it were in governed, he would escape punishment and disgrace. He gave him the daughter of his own elder brother to wife.
子謂子賎、君子哉若人、魯無君子者、斯焉取斯、
子、子賤しせんう。君子なるかな、かくのごときの人。君子者くんししゃなくんば、これいずくにかこれを取らんや。

05-03
The Master said of Tsze-chien, "Of superior virtue indeed is such a man! If there were not virtuous men in Lu, how could this man have acquired this character?"
子謂子賎、君子哉若人、魯無君子者、斯焉取斯、
子、子賤しせんう。君子なるかな、かくのごときの人。君子者くんししゃなくんば、これいずくにかこれを取らんや。

05-04
Tsze-kung asked, "What do you say of me, Ts'ze!" The Master said, "You are a utensil." "What utensil?" "A gemmed sacrificial utensil."
子貢問曰、賜也何如、子曰、女器也、曰、何器也、曰、瑚璉也、
しこう、問いて曰く、やいかん。いわく、なんじなり。曰く、なんの器ぞや。曰く、 瑚璉これんなり。

05-05
Some one said, "Yung is truly virtuous, but he is not ready with his tongue."
The Master said, "What is the good of being ready with the tongue? They who encounter men with smartness of speech for the most part procure themselves hatred. I know not whether he be truly virtuous, but why should he show readiness of the tongue?"
或曰、雍也、仁而不佞、子曰、焉用佞、禦人以口給、屡憎於人、不知其仁也、焉用佞也、
あるひと曰く、ようや、じんにしてねいならず。いわく、いずくんぞねいなるを用いん。人をふせぐに口給こうきゅうをもってすれば、しばしば人ににくまる。その仁なるを知らず、いずくんぞ佞なるをもちいん。 。

05-06
The Master was wishing Ch'i-tiao K'ai to enter an official employment. He replied, "I am not yet able to rest in the assurance of this." The Master was pleased.
子使漆雕開仕、對曰、吾斯之未能信、子説、
子、漆彫開しつちょうかいをしてつかえしめんとす。こたえて曰く、われはこれをこれいまだ信ずるあたわず、子、よろこぶ。 。

05-07
The Master said, "My doctrines make no way. I will get upon a raft, and float about on the sea. He that will accompany me will be Yu, I dare say." Tsze-lu hearing this was glad, upon which the Master said, "Yu is fonder of daring than I am. He does not exercise his judgment upon matters."
子曰、道不行、乘桴浮于海、從我者其由也與、子路聞之喜、子曰、由也、好勇過我、無所取材、
いわく、道おこなわれず、いかだに乗りて海に浮ばん。われに従う者はそれゆうなるか。子路しろ、これを聞いて喜ぶ。いわく、由や勇を好むことわれにぐ。よろしきを取るところなし。

05-08
Mang Wu asked about Tsze-lu, whether he was perfectly virtuous. The Master said, "I do not know."
He asked again, when the Master replied, "In a kingdom of a thousand chariots, Yu might be employed to manage the military levies, but I do not know whether he be perfectly virtuous."
"And what do you say of Ch'iu?" The Master replied, "In a city of a thousand families, or a clan of a hundred chariots, Ch'iu might be employed as governor, but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."
"What do you say of Ch'ih?" The Master replied, "With his sash girt and standing in a court, Ch'ih might be employed to converse with the visitors and guests, but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."
孟武伯問、子路仁乎、子曰、不知也、叉問、子曰、由也、千乘之國、可使治其賦也、不知其仁也、求也何如、子曰、求也、千室之邑、百乘之家、可使爲之宰也、不知其仁也、赤也何如、子曰、赤也、束帶立於朝、可使與賓客言也、不知其仁也、
武伯もうぶはく問う、子路は仁なるか。いわく、知らざるなり。また問う。いわく、ゆうや、千乗せんじょうの国にそのを治めしむべきなり。その仁なるを知らず。きゅうやいかん。いわく、求や、千室のゆう、百乗の家に、これがさいたらしむべし。その仁なるを知らず。せきやいかん。いわく、赤や、束帯そくたいしてちょうに立ち、賓客ひんかくと言わしむべきなり。そのじんなるを知らず。

05-09
The Master said to Tsze-kung, "Which do you consider superior, yourself or Hui?"
Tsze-kung replied, "How dare I compare myself with Hui? Hui hears one point and knows all about a subject; I hear one point, and know a second."
The Master said, "You are not equal to him. I grant you, you are not equal to him."
子謂子貢曰、汝與囘也孰愈、對曰、賜也何敢望囘、囘也聞一以知十、賜也聞一以知二、子曰、弗如也、吾與汝弗如也、
子、子貢しこうに謂いて曰く、なんじかいといずれかまされる。対えて曰く、や、なんぞあえて回を望まん。回や一を聞いてもって十を知る。や一を聞いてもって二を知るのみ。いわく、しかざるなり。われなんじとともにしかざるなり。

05-10
Tsai Yu being asleep during the daytime, the Master said, "Rotten wood cannot be carved; a wall of dirty earth will not receive the trowel. This Yu,-what is the use of my reproving him?"
The Master said, "At first, my way with men was to hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. Now my way is to hear their words, and look at their conduct. It is from Yu that I have learned to make this change."
宰予晝寝、子曰、朽木不可雕也、糞土之牆、不可朽也、於予與何誅、子曰、始吾於人也、聽其言而信其行、今吾於人也、聽其言而觀其行、於予與改是
さいよ昼寝ひるいぬ。いわく、朽木きゅうぼくるべからず。糞土ふんどかき?るべからず。予においてか何をかめん。いわく、始めわれ、人においてや、その言を聴きてその行いをしんじたりき。今われ、人においてや、その言を聴きてその行いをる。予においてか、これをあらためたり。

05-11
The Master said, "I have not seen a firm and unbending man." Some one replied, "There is Shan Ch'ang." "Ch'ang," said the Master, "is under the influence of his passions; how can he be pronounced firm and unbending?"
子曰、吾未見剛者、或對曰、申棖、子曰、棖也慾、焉得剛、
いわく、われはいまだごうなる者を見ず。あるひと対えて曰く、申棖しんとうあり。いわく、とうや慾あり。いずくんぞごうなるをん。

05-12
Tsze-kung said, "What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not to do to men." The Master said, "Ts'ze, you have not attained to that."
子貢曰、我不欲人之加諸我也、吾亦欲無加諸人、子曰、賜也、非爾所及也、
子貢しこう曰く、われは人のこれをわれに加うるを欲せざるや、われもまたこれを人に加うるなからんと欲す。いわく、や、なんじの及ぶところにあらざるなり。

05-13
Tsze-kung said, "The Master's personal displays of his principles and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses about man's nature, and the way of Heaven, cannot be heard."
子貢曰、夫子之文章、可得而聞也、夫子之言性與天道、不可得而聞也已矣、
子貢しこう曰く、夫子ふうしの文章は、得て聞くべきなり。夫子のせいと天道とを言うは、得て聞くべからざるなり。

05-14
When Tsze-lu heard anything, if he had not yet succeeded in carrying it into practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something else.
子路有聞、未之能行、唯恐有聞、
しろは聞くことありて、いまだこれをよくおこなわざれば、ただ聞くあらんことをおそる。

05-15 Tsze-kung asked, saying, "On what ground did Kung-wan get that title of Wan?"
The Master said, "He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors!-On these grounds he has been styled Wan."
子貢問曰、孔文子何以謂之文也、子曰、敏而好學、不恥下問、是以謂之文也、
子貢しこう、問うて曰く、孔文子こうぶんしは、何をもってかこれをぶんというや。いわく、びんにして学を好み、下問かもんを恥じず、ここをもってこれをぶんというなり。

05-16
The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the characteristics of a superior man-in his conduct of himself, he was humble; in serving his superior, he was respectful; in nourishing the people, he was kind; in ordering the people, he was just."
子謂子産、有君子之道四焉、其行己也恭、其事上也敬、其養民也惠、其使民也義、
子、子産しさんを謂う。君子の道、四つあり。そのおのれを行なうやきょう。そのかみつかうるやけい。その民を養うやけいあり。その民を使うやあり。

05-17
The Master said, "Yen P'ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same respect as at first."
子曰、晏平仲善與人交、久而人敬之、
いわく、晏平仲あんぺいちゅうはよく人と交わる。久くしてこれを敬す。
05-18
The Master said, "Tsang Wan kept a large tortoise in a house, on the capitals of the pillars of which he had hills made, and with representations of duckweed on the small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters.-Of what sort was his wisdom?"
子曰、臧文仲居蔡、山節藻梲、何如其知也、
いわく、臧文仲ぞうぶんちゅうは、さいき、せつさんし、せつそうす。いかんぞそれならんや。

05-19
Tsze-chang asked, saying, "The minister Tsze-wan thrice took office, and manifested no joy in his countenance. Thrice he retired from office, and manifested no displeasure. He made it a point to inform the new minister of the way in which he had conducted the government; what do you say of him?" The Master replied. "He was loyal." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be
pronounced perfectly virtuous?"
Tsze-chang proceeded, "When the officer Ch'ui killed the prince of Ch'i, Ch'an Wan, though he was the owner of forty horses, abandoned them and left the country. Coming to another state, he said, 'They are here like our great officer, Ch'ui,' and left it. He came to a second state, and with the same observation left it also;-what do you say of him?" The Master replied, "He was pure." "Was he
perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"
子張問曰、令尹子文、三仕爲令尹、無喜色、三已之、無慍色、舊令尹之政、必以告新令尹、何如也、子曰、忠矣、曰、仁矣乎、曰、未知、焉得仁、崔子弑齊君、陳文子有馬十乘、棄而違之、至於他邦、則曰、猶吾大夫崔子也、違之、至一邦、則叉曰、猶吾大夫崔子也、違之、何如、子曰、清矣、曰、仁矣乎、曰、未知、焉得仁、
子張、問うて曰く、令尹子文れいいんしぶんたびつかえて令尹れいいんとなりて喜色きしょくなし。三たびこれをめていかいろなし。旧令尹きゅうれいいんまつりごとは必ずもって新令尹しんれいいんに告ぐ。いかんぞや。いわく、ちゅうなり。曰く、仁なるか。曰く、いまだ知ならず、いずくんぞ仁なるを得ん。崔子さいし斉君せいくんしいす。陳文子ちんぶんし、馬十乗あり。棄ててこれをり、他邦たほうに至る。すなわち曰く、なおわが大夫たいふ崔子のごときあり、と。これをる。一邦にく。すなわちまた曰く、なおわが大夫崔子のごときあり、と。これをる。いかんぞや。いわく、清なり。曰く、仁なるか。曰く、いまだならず、いずくんぞ仁なるをん。

05-20
Chi Wan thought thrice, and then acted. When the Master was informed of it, he said, "Twice may do."
季文子三思而後行、子聞之曰、再思斯可矣、
きぶんし、三思してのちに行なう。子、これを聞いて曰く、再びすればこれになり。

05-21
The Master said, "When good order prevailed in his country, Ning Wu acted the part of a wise man. When his country was in disorder, he acted the part of a stupid man. Others may equal his wisdom, but they cannot equal his stupidity."
子曰。甯武子。邦有道則知。邦無道則愚。其知可及也。其愚不可及也。
いわく、甯武子ねいぶしは、くにに道あればすなわち知、邦に道なければすなわち。その知はおよぶべし。その愚はおよぶべからざるなり。

05-22
When the Master was in Ch'an, he said, "Let me return! Let me
return! The little children of my school are ambitious and too
hasty. They are accomplished and complete so far, but they do not know
how to restrict and shape themselves."
子在陳曰、歸與歸與、吾黨之小子狂簡、斐然成章、不知所以裁之也、
子、ちんにありて曰く、帰らんかな、帰らんかな。わが党の小子、狂簡きょうかんにして、斐然ひぜんとして章を成すも、これをさいするゆえんを知らず。

05-23
The Master said, "Po-i and Shu-ch'i did not keep the former wickednesses of men in mind, and hence the resentments directed towards them were few."
子曰、伯夷叔齊、不念舊惡、怨是用希、
いわく、伯夷はくい叔齊しゅくせいは、旧悪きゅうあくおもわず。怨み、ここをもっまれなり。
05-24
The Master said, "Who says of Weishang Kao that he is upright? One begged some vinegar of him, and he begged it of a neighbor and gave it to the man."
子曰、孰謂微生高直、或乞醯焉、乞諸其鄰而與之、
いわく、たれか微生高びせいこうを直しと謂うや。あるひといしに、これをそのとなりに乞うてこれにあたえたり。

05-25
The Master said, "Fine words, an insinuating appearance, and excessive respect;-Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of them. I also am ashamed of them. To conceal resentment against a person, and appear friendly with him;-Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. I also am ashamed of it."
子曰、巧言令色足恭、左丘明恥之、丘亦恥之、匿怨而友其人、左丘明恥之、丘亦恥之、
いわく、巧言こうげん令色れいしょく足恭すうきょうなるは、左丘明さきゅうめいこれを恥ず。きゅうもまたこれを恥ず。怨みをかくしてその人を友とするは、左丘明さきゅうめいこれを恥ず。丘もまたこれをず。

05-26
Yen Yuan and Chi Lu being by his side, the Master said to them, "Come, let each of you tell his wishes."
Tsze-lu said, "I should like, having chariots and horses, and light fur clothes, to share them with my friends, and though they should spoil them, I would not be displeased."
Yen Yuan said, "I should like not to boast of my excellence, nor to make a display of my meritorious deeds."
Tsze-lu then said, "I should like, sir, to hear your wishes." The Master said, "They are, in regard to the aged, to give them rest; in regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in regard to the young, to treat them tenderly."
顔淵季路侍、子曰、盍各言爾志。子路曰、願車馬衣輕裘、與朋友共、敝之而無憾、顔淵曰、願無伐善、無施勞、子路曰、願聞子之志、子曰、老者安之、朋友信之、少者懐之、
顔淵がんえん季路きろす。いわく、なんぞおのおのなんじの志を言わざる。子路しろ曰く、願わくは車馬しゃば軽裘けいきゅうを、朋友とともにし、これをやぶりてうらむなからん。顔淵曰く、願わくは善にほこるなく、労を施しすることなからん。子路曰く、願わくは子の志を聞かん。いわく、老者ろうしゃはこれを安んじ、朋友はこれを信じ、少者しょうしゃはこれをなつけん。

05-27
The Master said, "It is all over. I have not yet seen one who could perceive his faults, and inwardly accuse himself."
子曰、已矣乎、吾未見能見其過、而内自訟者也、
いわく、んぬるかな。われはいまだ、よくその過ちを見て内にみずからむる者をず。
05-28
The Master said, "In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found one honorable and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning."
子曰、十室十邑、必有忠信如丘者焉、不如丘之好學也、
いわく、十室じっしつゆうに、必ずや忠信のきゅうのごとき者あらん。丘の学をこのむにしかざるなり。

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雍也 第六

06-01
The Master said, "There is Yung!-He might occupy the place of a prince."
子曰、雍也可使南面、
いわく、よう南面なんめんせしむべし。

06-02
Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Po-tsze. The Master said, "He may pass. He does not mind small matters."
Chung-kung said, "If a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling of the necessity of attention to business, though he may be easy in small matters in his government of the people, that may be allowed. But if he cherish in himself that easy feeling, and also carry it out in his practice, is not such an easymode of procedure excessive?"
The Master said, "Yung's words are right."
仲弓問子桑伯子、子曰、可也、簡、仲弓曰、居敬而行簡、以臨其民、不亦可乎、居簡而行簡、無乃大簡乎、子曰、雍之言然、
仲弓ちゅうきゅう子桑伯子しそうはくしを問う。いわく、かんなり仲弓ちゅうきゅう曰く、けいに居りて簡を行ない、もってその民に臨むは、また可ならずや。簡に居りて簡を行なうは、すなわちはなはだ簡なるなからんや。いわく、ようの言うことしかり。

06-03
The Duke Ai asked which of the disciples loved to learn.
Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. He did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault. Unfortunately, his appointed time was short and he died; and now there is not such another. I have not yet heard of any one who loves to
learn as he did."
哀公問曰、弟子孰爲好學、孔子對曰、有顔囘、好學、不遷怒、不貳過、不幸短命死矣、今也則亡、未聞好學者也、
哀公あいこう問う、弟子ていし、たれか学を好むとなす。孔子こたえて曰く、顔回がんかいなる者ありて学を好みたり。怒りをうつさず、過ちをふたたびせず。不幸、短命にして死せり。今やすなわちなし。いまだ学を好む者あるをかざるなり。

06-04
Tsze-hwa being employed on a mission to Ch'i, the disciple Zan requested grain for his mother. The Master said, "Give her a fu." Yen requested more. "Give her a yi," said the Master. Yen gave her five ping.
The Master said, "When Ch'ih was proceeding to Ch'i, he had fat horses to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard that a superior man helps the distressed, but does not add to the wealth of the rich."
子華使於齊、冉子爲其母請粟、子曰、與之釜、請益、曰與之庾、冉子與之粟五秉、子曰、赤之適齊也、乘肥馬、衣輕裘、吾聞之也、君子周急不繼富、
子華しかせいに使いす。冉子ぜんし、その母のためにぞくを請う。いわく、これにを与えよ。さんことを請う。曰く、これにを与えよ。冉子、これに粟五へいを与う。いわく、赤の斉にくや、肥馬ひばり、軽裘けいきゅうる。われはこれを聞く。君子は急をすくうて富めるに継がず、と。

06-05
Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by the Master, he gave him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze declined them.
The Master said, "Do not decline them. May you not give them away in the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and villages?"
原思爲之宰、與之粟九百、辭、子曰、毋、以與爾隣里郷黨乎、
<>思げんし、これが宰たり。これに粟九百を与う。辞す。いわく、もってなんじが鄰里りんり郷党きょうとうに与うるなからんや。
06-06
The Master, speaking of Chung-kung, said, "If the calf of a brindled cow be red and homed, although men may not wish to use it, would the spirits of the mountains and rivers put it aside?"
子謂仲弓曰、犂牛之子、騂且角、雖欲勿用、山川其舎諸、
子、仲弓ちゅうきゅうを謂いて曰く、犂牛りぎゅうの子、あかくしてかつつのあらば、用いるなからんと欲すといえども、山川さんせん、それこれをかんや。
06-07
The Master said, "Such was Hui that for three months there would be nothing in his mind contrary to perfect virtue. The others may attain to this on some days or in some months, but nothing more."
子曰、囘也、其心三月不違仁、其餘則日月至焉而已矣、
いわく、かい?おしうること三月、仁にたがわずなりぬ。その余はすなわち日に月に至りしのみ。

06-08
Chi K'ang asked about Chung-yu, whether he was fit to be employed as an officer of government. The Master said, "Yu is a man of decision; what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" K'ang asked, "Is Ts'ze fit to be employed as an officer of government?" and was answered, "Ts'ze is a man of intelligence; what
difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" And to the same question about Ch'iu the Master gave the same reply, saying, "Ch'iu is a man of various ability."
季康子問、仲由可使從政也與、子曰、由也果、於從政乎何有、曰、賜也可使從政也與、子曰、賜也逹、於從政乎何有、曰、求也可使從政也與、子曰、求也藝、於從政乎何有、
きこうし、問う、仲由ちゅうゆうまつりごとに従わしむべきか。いわく、ゆうなり。政に従うにおいて何かあらん。曰く、や政に従わしむべきか。曰く、たつなり。政に従うにおいて何かあらん。曰く、きゅうや政に従わしむべきか。曰く、きゅうげいあり。政に従うにおいてなにかあらん。

06-09
The chief of the Chi family sent to ask Min Tsze-ch'ien to be governor of Pi. Min Tszech'ien said, "Decline the offer for me politely. If any one come again to me with a second invitation, I shall be obliged to go and live on the banks of the Wan."
季氏使閔子騫爲費宰、閔子騫曰、善爲我辭焉、如有復我者、則吾必在汶上矣、
季氏きし閔子騫びんしけんをしてさいたらしめんとす。閔子騫曰く、よくわがためにこれを辞せ。もしわれにふたたびすることあらば、われは必ずぶんほとりにあらん。

06-10
Po-niu being ill, the Master went to ask for him. He took hold of his hand through the window, and said, "It is killing him. It is the appointment of Heaven, alas! That such a man should have such a sickness! That such a man should have such a sickness!"
伯牛有疾、子問之、自牖執其手、曰、亡之、命矣夫、斯人也而有斯疾也、斯人也而有斯疾也、
はくぎゅうやまいあり。子これを問い、まどよりその手をる。曰く、これをうしなわん。めいなるかな。この人にしてこのやまいあり。この人にしてこのやまいあらんとは。

06-11
The Master said, "Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hui! With a single bamboo dish of rice, a single gourd dish of drink, and living in his mean narrow lane, while others could not have endured the
distress, he did not allow his joy to be affected by it. Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hui!"
子曰、賢哉囘也、一箪食、一瓢飮、在陋巷、人不堪其憂、囘也不改其樂、賢哉囘也、
いわく、けんなるかなかいや。一たん、一ぴょういん陋巷ろうこうにあり。人はその憂えにえず。回やその楽しみをあらためず。賢なるかなかいや。

06-12
Yen Ch'iu said, "It is not that I do not delight in your doctrines, but my strength is insufficient." The Master said, "Those whose strength is insufficient give over in the middle of the way but now you limit yourself."
冉求曰、非不説子之道、力不足也、子曰、力不足者、中道而癈、今女畫、
冉求ぜんきゅう曰く、の道をよろこばざるにはあらず。力足らざるなり。いわく、力の足らざる者は、中道にしてはいす。今、なんじはかぎる。

06-13
The Master said to Tsze-hsia, "Do you be a scholar after the style of the superior man, and not after that of the mean man."
子謂子夏曰、女爲君子儒、無爲小人儒、
子、子夏しかに謂いて曰く、なんじ君子のじゅとなれ。小人のじゅとなるなかれ。

06-14
Tsze-yu being governor of Wu-ch'ang, the Master said to him, "Have you got good men there?" He answered, "There is Tan-t'ai Miehming, who never in walking takes a short cut, and never comes to my office, excepting on public business."
子游爲武城宰、子曰、女得人焉耳乎、曰、有澹薹滅明者、行不由徑、非公事、未嘗至於偃之室也、
子游しゆう武城ぶじょうさいとなる。いわく、なんじ人を得たるか。曰く、澹台滅明たんだいめつめいなる者あり。行くにこみちによらず。公事にあらざれば、いまだかつてえんの室にいたらざるなり。

06-15
The Master said, "Mang Chih-fan does not boast of his merit. Being in the rear on an occasion of flight, when they were about to enter the gate, he whipped up his horse, saying, "It is not that I dare to be last. My horse would not advance."
子曰、孟之反不伐、奔而殿、將入門、策其馬曰、非敢後也、馬不進也、
いわく、孟之反もうしはんほこらず。はしりて殿でんす。まさに門にらんとす。その馬にむちうちて曰く、あえておくれたるにあらず。馬、すすまざりしなり。

06-16
The Master said, "Without the specious speech of the litanist T'o and the beauty of the prince Chao of Sung, it is difficult to escape in the present age."
子曰、不有祝鮀之佞、而有宋朝之美、難乎、免於今之世矣、
いわく、祝鮀しゅくだねいあらずして、宋朝そうちょうの美あらばかたいかな、今の世にまぬがれんこと。

06-17
The Master said, "Who can go out but by the door? How is it that men will not walk according to these ways?"
子曰、誰能出不由戸者、何莫由斯道也、
いわく、たれかよくずるにによらざらん。なんぞこのみちによるなきや。

06-18
The Master said, "Where the solid qualities are in excess of accomplishments, we have rusticity; where the accomplishments are in excess of the solid qualities, we have the manners of a clerk. When the accomplishments and solid qualities are equally blended, we then have the man of virtue."
子曰、質勝文勝質則史、文質彬彬、然後君子、
いわく、しつぶんに勝れば、文、質に勝れば文質ぶんしつ彬彬ひんぴんとして、しかるのちに君子くんしなり。

06-19
The Master said, "Man is born for uprightness. If a man lose his uprightness, and yet live, his escape from death is the effect of mere good fortune."
子曰、人之生也直、罔之生也、幸而免、
いわく、人のうまるるやなおし。これをなみしてくるや、幸いにしてまぬがれんのみ。

06-20
The Master said, "They who know the truth are not equal to those who love it, and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in it."
子曰、知之者不如好之者、好之者不如樂之者、
いわく、これをる者はこれをこのむ者にしかず。これをこのむ者はこれをたのししむ者にしかず。

06-21
The Master said, "To those whose talents are above mediocrity, the highest subjects may be announced. To those who are below mediocrity, the highest subjects may not be announced."
子曰、中人以上、可以語上也、中人以下、不可以語上也、
いわく、中人ちゅうじん以上はもってかみを語るべきなり。中人以下はもってかみを語るべからず。

06-22
Fan Ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom. The Master said, "To give one's self earnestly to the duties due to men, and, while respecting spiritual beings, to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom." He
asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "The man of virtue makes the difficulty to be overcome his first business, and success only a subsequent consideration;-this may be called perfect virtue."
樊遅問知、子曰、務民之義、敬鬼神而遠之、可謂知矣、問仁、子曰、仁者先難而後獲、可謂仁矣、
樊遅はんち、知を問う。いわく、民の義を務め、鬼神きしんけいしてこれを遠ざく。知と謂うべし。仁を問う。曰く、仁者じんしゃは難きをさきにしてるをのちにす。仁と謂うべし。

06-23
The Master said, "The wise find pleasure in water; the virtuous find pleasure in hills. The wise are active; the virtuous are tranquil. The wise are joyful; the virtuous are long-lived."
子曰、知者樂水、仁者樂山、知者動、仁者静、知者樂、仁者壽、
いわく、知者は水を楽しみ、仁者じんしゃは山を楽しむとあり。知者は動き、仁者じんしゃは静かなり。知者は楽しみ、仁者じんしゃ寿いのちながし。

06-24
The Master said, "Ch'i, by one change, would come to the State of Lu. Lu, by one change, would come to a State where true principles predominated."
子曰、齊一變至於魯、魯一變至於道、
いわく、せい一変いっぺんすればに至り、、一変すればみちに至らん。
06-25
The Master said, "A cornered vessel without corners-a strange cornered vessel! A strange cornered vessel!"
子曰、觚不觚、觚哉、觚哉、
いわく、にして觚ならずんば、觚ならんや、觚ならんや。

06-26
Tsai Wo asked, saying, "A benevolent man, though it be told him,-'There is a man in the well" will go in after him, I suppose." Confucius said, "Why should he do so?" A superior man may be made to go to the well, but he cannot be made to go down into it. He may be
imposed upon, but he cannot be fooled."
宰我問曰、仁者雖告之曰井有仁者焉、其從之也、子曰、何爲其然也、君子可逝也、不可陥也、可欺也、不可罔也、
宰我さいが、問うて曰く、仁者じんしゃはこれに告げて、せいに人ありと曰うといえども、それこれに従わん。いわく、なんすれぞそれしからんや。君子はかしむべきなり。おとしいるべからざるなり。あざむくべきなり。うべからざるなり。

06-27
The Master said, "The superior man, extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewise not overstep what is right."
子曰、君子博學於文、約之以禮、亦可以弗畔矣夫、
いわく、君子はひろぶんを学び、これをやくするに礼をもってすれば、またもってそむかざるべし。

06-28
The Master having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-lu was displeased, on which the Master swore, saying, "Wherein I have done improperly, may Heaven reject me, may Heaven reject me!"
子見南子、子路不説、夫子矢之曰、予所否者、天厭之、天厭之、
子、南子なんしを見る。子路しろよろこばず。夫子、これにちかいて曰く、予がしからずとするところのものは、天これをてん。天これを厭てん。

06-29
The Master said, "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been its practice among the people."
子曰、中庸之爲徳也、其至矣乎、民鮮久矣、
いわく、中庸ちゅうようの徳たるや、それ至れるかな。民よくすることすくなきやひさし。

06-30
Tsze-kung said, "Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring benefits on the people, and able to assist all, what would you say of him? Might he be called perfectly virtuous?" The Master said, "Why speak only of virtue in connection with him? Must he not have the qualities of a sage? Even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this.
"Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.
"To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves;-this may be called the art of virtue."
子貢曰、如能博施於民、而能濟衆者、何如、可謂仁乎、子曰、何事於仁、必也聖乎、尭舜其猶病諸、夫仁者己欲立而立人、己欲逹而逹人、能近取譬、可謂仁之方也已、
しこう曰く、もしひろく民にほどこしてよく衆をすくうものあらばいかんぞや。仁と謂うべきか。いわく、なんぞ仁をこととせん。必ずや聖か。尭舜ぎょうしゅんもそれなおこれをめり。それ仁者じんしゃはおのれ立たんと欲して人を立て、おのれ達せんと欲して人を達せしむ。よく近くたとえを取る。仁のほうと謂うべきのみ。

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述而 第七

07-01
The Master said, "A transmitter and not a maker, believing in and loving the ancients, I venture to compare myself with our old P'ang."
子曰、述而不作、信而好古、竊比於我老彭、
いわく、べてつくらず、信じていにしえを好む。ひそかに老彭ろうほう
07-02
The Master said, "The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied:-which one of these things belongs to me?"
子曰、默而識之、學而不厭、誨人不倦、何有於我哉、
いわく、黙してこれをり、学んでいとわず、人をおしえてまず。われにおいて何かあらんや

07-03
The Master said, "The leaving virtue without proper cultivation; the not thoroughly discussing what is learned; not being able to move towards righteousness of which a knowledge is gained; and not being able to change what is not good:-these are the things which occasion me solicitude."
子曰、徳之不脩也、學之不講也、聞義不能徙也、不善不能改也、是吾憂也、
いわく、徳のおさまらざる、学の講ぜられざる、義を聞いてうつるあたわざる、不善の改むるあたわざる、これうれいなり。

07-04
When the Master was unoccupied with business, his manner was easy, and he looked pleased.
子之燕居、申申如也、夭夭如也、
子の燕居えんきょするや、申申如しんしんじょたり、夭夭如ようようじょたり。

07-05
The Master said, "Extreme is my decay. For a long time, I have not dreamed, as I was wont to do, that I saw the duke of Chau."
子曰、甚矣、吾衰也、久矣、吾不復夢見周公也、
いわく、はなはだしいかな、わがおとろうるや。久しいかな、われまた夢に周公しゅうこうを見ず。

07-06
The Master said, "Let the will be set on the path of duty.
"Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped.
"Let perfect virtue be accorded with.
"Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts."
子曰、志於道、據於徳、依於仁、游於藝、
いわく、道にこころざし、徳にり、仁にり、芸にあそぶ。

07-07
The Master said, "From the man bringing his bundle of dried flesh for my teaching upwards, I have never refused instruction to any one."
子曰、自行束脩以上、吾未嘗無誨焉、
いわく、束脩そくしゅうを行なうより以上は、われいまだかつておしうるなくんばあらず。

07-08
The Master said, "I do not open up the truth to one who is not eager to get knowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain himself. When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one, and he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not repeat my lesson."
子曰、不憤不啓、不悱不發、擧一隅而示之、不以三隅反、則吾不復也、
いわく、いきどおらざればけいせず。せざれば発せず。一隅いちぐうげて、三隅さんぐうをもってかえさざれば、またせざるなり。

07-09
When the Master was eating by the side of a mourner, he never ate to the full.
He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping.
子食於有喪者之側、未嘗飽也、子於是日也哭、則不歌、
子はある者のかたわらしょくするには、いまだかつてかざるなり。子、この日においてこくすれば、すなわち歌わず。

07-10
The Master said to Yen Yuan, "When called to office, to undertake its duties; when not so called, to he retired;-it is only I and you who have attained to this."
Tsze-lu said, "If you had the conduct of the armies of a great state, whom would you have to act with you?"
The Master said, "I would not have him to act with me, who will unarmed attack a tiger, or cross a river without a boat, dying without any regret. My associate must be the man who proceeds to action full of solicitude, who is fond of adjusting his plans, and then carries them into execution."
子謂顔淵曰、用之則行、舎之則藏、唯我與爾有是夫、子路曰、子行三軍、則誰與、子曰、暴虎馮河、死而無悔者、吾不與也、必也臨事而懼、好謀而成者也、
子、顔淵がんえんに謂いて曰く、これを用うればすなわち行ない、これをけばすなわちかくる。ただわれとなんじとのみこれあるかな。子路曰く、、三軍をらば、すなわちたれとともにせん。いわく、とらかわわた、死していなき者は、われくみせざるなり。必ずやことに臨んでおそれ、はかりごとを好んでなすものなり。

07-11
The Master said, "If the search for riches is sure to be successful, though I should become a groom with whip in hand to get them, I will do so. As the search may not be successful, I will follow after that which I love."
子曰、富而可求也、雖執鞭之士、吾亦爲之、如不可求、從吾所好、
いわく、とみにして求むべくんば、執鞭しつべんといえども、われまたこれをなさん。もし求むべからずんば、が好むところにしたがわん。いわく、とみにして求むべくんば、執鞭しつべんといえども、われまたこれをなさん。もし求むべからずんば、が好むところにしたがわん。

07-12
The things in reference to which the Master exercised the greatest caution were-fasting, war, and sickness.
子之所愼、齊戰疾、
子のつつししむところは、さいと、せんと、しつ

07-13
When the Master was in Ch'i, he heard the Shao, and for three months did not know the taste of flesh. "I did not think'" he said, "that music could have been made so excellent as this."
子在齊、聞韶樂三月、不知肉味、曰、不圖爲樂之至於斯也、
子、せいにありてしょうを聞く。三月肉の味を知らず。曰く、はからざりき、がくをなすのここに至るや。

07-14
Yen Yu said, "Is our Master for the ruler of Wei?" Tsze-kung said, "Oh! I will ask him."
He went in accordingly, and said, "What sort of men were Po-i and Shu-ch'i?" "They were ancient worthies," said the Master. "Did they have any repinings because of their course?" The Master again replied, "They sought to act virtuously, and they did so; what was there for them to repine about?" On this, Tsze-kung went out and said, "Our Master is not for him."
冉有曰、夫子爲衛君乎、子貢曰、諾、吾將問之、入曰、伯夷叔齊何人也、子曰、古之賢人也、曰怨乎、曰、求仁而得仁、叉何怨乎、出曰、夫子夫爲也、
冉有ぜんゆう曰く、夫子ふうし衛君えいくんたすけんか。子貢しこう曰く、だく。われまさにこれを問わんとす、と。入りて曰く、伯夷はくい叔斉しゅくせい何人なんぴとぞや。曰く、いにしえの賢人なり。曰く、怨みたるか。曰く、じんを求めて仁を得たり。また何をか怨みん。出でて曰く、夫子はたすけざるなり。

07-15
The Master said, "With coarse rice to eat, with water to drink, and my bended arm for a pillow;-I have still joy in the midst of these things. Riches and honors acquired by unrighteousness, are to me as a floating cloud."
子曰、飯疏食飮水、曲肱而枕之、樂亦在其中矣、不義而富且貴、於我如浮雲、
いわく、疏食そしくらい水を飲み、ひじを曲げてこれをまくらとす。楽しみまたその中にあり。不義ふぎにして富みかつたっときは、われにおいて浮雲ふうんのごとし。

07-16
The Master said, "If some years were added to my life, I would give fifty to the study of the Yi, and then I might come to be without great faults."
子曰、加我數年、五十以學、易可以無大過矣、
いわく、われに数年をくわえ、五十にしてもってえきを学ばば、もって大過たいかなかるべし。

07-17
The Master's frequent themes of discourse were-the Odes, the History, and the maintenance of the Rules of Propriety. On all these he frequently discoursed.
子所雅言、詩書執禮、皆雅言也、
子の雅言がげんするところは詩、書。礼を執るもみな雅言がげんなり。
07-18
The Duke of Sheh asked Tsze-lu about Confucius, and Tsze-lu did not answer him.
The Master said, "Why did you not say to him,-He is simply a man, who in his eager pursuit of knowledge forgets his food, who in the joy of its attainment forgets his sorrows, and who does not perceive that old age is coming on?"
葉公問孔子於子路、子路不對、子曰、女奚不曰、其爲人也、發憤忘食、樂以忘憂、不知老之將至也云爾、
葉公しょうこう、孔子を子路に問う。子路こたえず。いわく、なんじはなんぞ曰わざる、その人となりや、いきどおりを発しては食を忘れ、楽んではもってうれいを忘れ、老いのまさに至らんとするを知らずとうのみ、と。

07-19
The Master said, "I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there."
子曰、我非生而知之者、好古敏以求之者也、
いわく、これを知る者にあらず。いにしえを好み、びんにしてもってこれをもとめし者なり。 いわく、われは生まれながらにしてこれを知る者にあらず。いにしえを好み、びんにしてもってこれをもとめし者なり。

07-20
The subjects on which the Master did not talk, were-extraordinary things, feats of strength, disorder, and spiritual beings.
子不語怪力亂神、
子、かいりょくらんしんを語らず。

07-21
The Master said, "When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them."
子曰、我三人行、必得我師焉、擇其善者而從之、其不善者改之、
いわく、三人おこなえば、必ずわが師あり。その善き者をえらんでこれに従い、その善からざる者にしてはこれをあらたむ。

07-22
The Master said, "Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. Hwan T'ui-what can he do to me?"
子曰、天生徳於予、桓魋其如予何、
いわく、天、徳をわれしょうぜしならば、桓魋かんたい、それわれをいかんせん。

07-23
The Master said, "Do you think, my disciples, that I have any concealments? I conceal nothing from you. There is nothing which I do that is not shown to you, my disciples; that is my way."
子曰、二三子以我爲隱乎、吾無隱乎爾、吾無所行而不與二三子者、是丘也、
いわく、二三子にさんしは、われをもって隠すとなすか。われなんじに隠すことなし。われは行なうとして二三子とともにせざるものなし。これきゅうなればなり。

07-24
There were four things which the Master taught,-letters, ethics, devotion of soul, and truthfulness.
子以四教、文行忠信、
子、をもって教う。ぶんこうちゅうしん

07-25
The Master said, "A sage it is not mine to see; could I see a man of real talent and virtue, that would satisfy me."
The Master said, "A good man it is not mine to see; could I see a man possessed of constancy, that would satisfy me.
"Having not and yet affecting to have, empty and yet affecting to be full, straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:-it is difficult with such characteristics to have constancy."
子曰、聖人吾不得而見之矣、得見君子者、斯可矣、子曰、善人不得而見之矣、得見有恆者、斯可矣、亡而爲有、虚而爲盈、約而爲泰、難乎有恆矣、
いわく、聖人はわれ得てこれを見ざらん。君子者くんししゃを見るを得ば、ここになり。いわく、善人はわれ得てこれを見ざらん。つねある者を見るを得ば、ここに可なり。くしてありとなし、むなしくしててりとなし、やくにしてたいとなさば、つねあることかたいかな

07-26
The Master angled,-but did not use a net. He shot,-but not at birds perching.
子釣而不綱、弋不射宿、
子、つりしてあみせず。よくして宿やどりず。

07-27
The Master said, "There may be those who act without knowing why. I do not do so. Hearing much and selecting what is good and following it; seeing much and keeping it in memory: this is the second style of knowledge."
子曰、蓋有不知而作之者、我無是也、多聞擇其善者而從之、多見而識之、知之次也、
いわく、けだし、知らずしてこれを作る者あらん。われはこれなきなり。多く聞き、その善き者をえらんでこれに従う。多く見てこれを識りこれを知るは次なり

07-28
It was difficult to talk profitably and reputably with the people of Hu-hsiang, and a lad of that place having had an interview with the Master, the disciples doubted.
The Master said, "I admit people's approach to me without committing myself as to what they may do when they have retired. Why must one be so severe? If a man purify himself to wait upon me, I receive him
so purified, without guaranteeing his past conduct."
互郷難與言、童子見、門人惑、子曰、與其進也、不與其退也、唯何甚、人潔己以進、與其潔也、不保其往也、
互郷ごきょうはともに言い難し。童子どうじまみえんとす。門人惑う。いわく、その進むことをゆるし、その退くをゆるさざるならば、ただなんぞはなはだしきや。人、己をきよくしてもって進まば、その絜きをゆるさん。そのむかしせざるなり。

07-29
The Master said, "Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous, and lo! virtue is at hand."
子曰、仁遠乎哉、我欲仁、斯仁至矣、
いわく、じんとおからんや。われ仁を欲すれば、ここに仁いたる。

07-30
The minister of crime of Ch'an asked whether the duke Chao knew propriety, and Confucius said, "He knew propriety."
Confucius having retired, the minister bowed to Wu-ma Ch'i to come forward, and said, "I have heard that the superior man is not a
partisan. May the superior man be a partisan also? The prince married a daughter of the house of WU, of the same surname with himself, and called her,-'The elder Tsze of Wu.' If the prince knew propriety, who does not know it?"
Wu-ma Ch'i reported these remarks, and the Master said, "I am fortunate! If I have any errors, people are sure to know them."
陳司敗問、昭公知禮乎、孔子對曰、知禮、孔子退、揖巫馬期而進之曰、吾聞、君子不黨、君子亦黨乎、君取於呉、爲同姓謂之呉孟子、君而知禮、孰不知禮、巫馬期以告、子曰、丘也幸、苟有過、人必知之、
ちん司敗しはい問う、昭公しょうこうは礼を知るか。孔子曰く、礼を知る。孔子退く。巫馬期ふばきゆうしてこれを進めて曰く、われ聞く、君子は党せず、と。君子もまた党するか。君はよりめとり同性たり。これを呉孟子ごもうしと謂えり。君にして礼を知らば、たれか礼を知らざらん。巫馬期、もって告ぐ。いわく、丘や幸なり。いやしくも過ちあれば、人必ずこれを知らしむ。

07-31
When the Master was in company with a person who was singing, if he sang well, he would make him repeat the song, while he accompanied it with his own voice.
子與人歌而善、必使反之、而後和之、
子、人と歌って善しとすれば、必ずこれをえせしめ、しかるのち、これにす。
07-32
The Master said, "In letters I am perhaps equal to other men, but the character of the superior man, carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is what I have not yet attained to."
子曰、文莫吾猶人也、躬行君子、則吾未之有得也、
いわく、文莫ぶんばくはわれなお人のごときなり。君子を躬行きゅうこうすることは、われいまだこれを得ることあらず。

07-33
The Master said, "The sage and the man of perfect virtue;-how dare I rank myself with them? It may simply be said of me, that I strive to become such without satiety, and teach others without weariness." Kung-hsi Hwa said, "This is just what we, the disciples, cannot imitate you in."
子曰、若聖與仁、則吾豈敢、抑爲之不厭、誨人不倦、則可謂云爾已矣、公西華曰、正唯弟子不能學也、
いわく、聖と仁とのごときは、われにあえてせんや。そもそもこれをまねしていとわず、人をおしえてまざるは、すなわち云爾しかりと謂うべきのみ。公西華こうせいか曰く、まさにしかり弟子ていし、学ぶあたわざるなり。

07-34
The Master being very sick, Tsze-lu asked leave to pray for him. He said, "May such a thing be done?" Tsze-lu replied, "It may. In the Eulogies it is said, 'Prayer has been made for thee to the spirits of the upper and lower worlds.'" The Master said, "My praying has been for a long time."
子疾病、子路請祷、子曰、有諸、子路對曰、有之、誄曰、祷爾于上下神祇、子曰、丘之祷之久矣、
子のやまへいす。子路しろいのらんと請う。いわく、これありや。子路、こたえて曰く、これあり。るいに曰う、上下しょうか神祇しんぎ祷爾とうじす、といわく、丘の?いのるや久し。

07-35
The Master said, "Extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate."
子曰、奢則不孫、儉則固、與其不孫也寧固、
いわく、しゃなれば不遜ふそん、倹なればかたし。その不遜よりはむしろかたかれ。

07-36
The Master said, "The superior man is satisfied and composed; the mean man is always full of distress."
子曰、君子坦蕩蕩、小人長戚戚、
いわく、君子はたんとして蕩蕩とうとうたり。小人はちょうとして戚戚せきせきたり。

07-37
The Master was mild, and yet dignified; majestic, and yet not fierce; respectful, and yet easy.
子温而厲、威而不猛、恭而安
子はおだやかにしてはげしく、ありてたけからず、きょうにしてやすし。

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-------------------------
泰伯 第八

08-01
The Master said, "T'ai-po may be said to have reached the highest point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined the kingdom, and the people in ignorance of his motives could not express their approbation
of his conduct."
子曰、泰伯其可謂至徳也已矣、三以天下譲、民無得而稱焉、
いわく、泰伯たいはくはそれ至徳しとくと謂うべきのみ。たび天下をもってゆずり、民、得てしょうするなし。

08-02
The Master said, "Respectfulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes timidity; boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes
insubordination; straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes rudeness.
"When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. When old friends are not neglected by them, the people are preserved from meanness."
子曰、恭而無禮則勞、愼而無禮則葸 、勇而無禮則亂、直而無禮則絞、君子篤於親、則民興於仁、故舊不遺、則民不偸、
いわく、きょうにして礼なければろうす。つつしんで礼なければおそる。ゆうにして礼なければみだる。ちょくにして礼なければせまし。君子、親にあつくすれば、たみ、仁におこる。故旧こきゅうわすれざれば、民、うすからず。

08-03
The philosopher Tsang being ill, he cared to him the disciples of his school, and said, "Uncover my feet, uncover my hands. It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'We should be apprehensive and cautious, as
if on the brink of a deep gulf, as if treading on thin ice, I and so have I been. Now and hereafter, I know my escape from all injury to my person. O ye, my little children."
曾子有疾、召門弟子曰、啓予足、啓予手、詩云、戰戰兢兢、如臨深淵、如履薄冰、而今而後、吾知免夫、小子、
そうしやまいあり。門弟子もんていしして曰く、が足をひらけ、予が手をひらけ。に云う、戦戦兢兢せんせんきょうきょうとして、深きふちのぞむがごとく、うすこおりむごとくせよ、とあり。而今而後じこんじご、われまぬがれしを知るかな、小子しょうし

08-04
The philosopher Tsang being ill, Meng Chang went to ask how he was.
Tsang said to him, "When a bird is about to die, its notes are mournful; when a man is about to die, his words are good.
"There are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank should consider specially important:-that in his deportment and manner he keep from violence and heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance he keep near to sincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep far from lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as attending to the sacrificial vessels, there are the proper officers for them."
曾子有疾、孟敬子問之、曾子言曰、鳥之將死、其鳴也哀、人之將死、其言也善、君子所貴乎道者三、動容貌、斯遠暴慢矣、正顔色、斯近信矣、出辭氣、斯遠鄙倍矣、籩豆之事、則有司存、
曾子そうしやまいあり。孟敬子もうけいし、これを問う。曾子、言いて曰く、鳥のまさに死なんとするや、その鳴くことかなし。人のまさに死なんとするや、その言うことし、とあり。君子の道にたっとぶところのものさんあり。容貌ようぼうを動かしては、ここに暴慢ぼうまんに遠ざかる。顔色がんしょくを正しては、ここに信に近づく。辞気じきいだしては、ここに鄙倍ひばいに遠ざかる。籩豆へんとうことには、有司ゆうしそんす。

08-05
The philosopher Tsang said, "Gifted with ability, and yet putting questions to those who were not so; possessed of much, and yet putting questions to those possessed of little; having, as though he had not; full, and yet counting himself as empty; offended against, and yet entering into no altercation; formerly I had a friend who pursued this style of conduct."
曾子曰、以能問於不能、以多問於寡、有若無、實若虚、犯而不校、昔者吾友嘗從事於斯矣、
そうし曰く、のうをもって不能ふのうに問い、多きをもってすくなきに問う。有れどもなきがごとく、てるもむなしきがごとし。おかさるるもこうせず。昔はわが友、かつてここに従事じゅうじしたりき。

08-06
The philosopher Tsang said, "Suppose that there is an individual who can be entrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince, and can be commissioned with authority over a state of a hundred li, and whom no emergency however great can drive from his principles:-is such a man a superior man? He is a superior man indeed."
曾子曰、可以託六尺之孤、可以寄百里之命、臨大節而不可奪也、君子人與、君子人也、
曾子そうし曰く、もって六尺りくせきたくすべく、もって百里ひゃくりめいを寄すべし。大節たいせつに臨んで奪うべからざるなり。君子人くんしじんか、君子人くんしじんなり。

08-07
The philosopher Tsang said, "The officer may not be without breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. His burden is heavy and his course is long.
"Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to sustain;-is it not heavy? Only with death does his course stop;-is it not long?
曾子曰、士不可以不弘毅、任重而道遠、人以爲己任、不亦重乎、死而後已、不亦遠乎、
そうし曰く、はもって弘毅こうきならざるべからず。にんおもくして道遠し。仁もっておのが任となす。また重からずや。死してのちむ。また遠からずや。

08-08
The Master said, "It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused.
"It is by the Rules of Propriety that the character is established.
"It is from Music that the finish is received."
子曰、興於詩、立於禮、成於樂、
いわく、詩におこり、礼に立ち、がくに成る。

08-09
The Master said, "The people may be made to follow a path of action, but they may not be made to understand it."
子曰、民可使由之、不可使知之、
いわく、たみはこれにらしむべく、これを知らしむべからず
08-10
The Master said, "The man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme."
子曰、好勇疾貧、亂也、人而不仁、疾之已甚、亂也、
いわく、ゆうを好みてひんにくむはらんす。人にして不仁ふじんなる、これをにくむことはなはだしきはらんす。

08-11
The Master said, "Though a man have abilities as admirable as those of the Duke of Chau, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being looked at."
子曰、如有周公之才之美、使驕且吝、其餘不足觀也已矣、
いわく、もし周公しゅうこうさいあるも、おごりかつやぶさかならしめば、そのは観るに足らざるなり

08-12
The Master said, "It is not easy to find a man who has learned for three years without coming to be good."
子曰、三年學不至於穀、不易得也已、
いわく、三年学んでこくに至らざるは、やすからざるなり。

08-13
The Master said, "With sincere faith he unites the love of learning; holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course.
"Such an one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in a disorganized one. When right principles of government prevail in the kingdom, he will show himself; when they are prostrated, he will keep concealed.
"When a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed, riches and honor are things to be ashamed of."
子曰、篤信好學、守死善道、危邦不入、亂邦不居、天下有道則見、無道則隠、邦有道、貧且賤焉、恥也、邦無道、富且貴焉、恥也、
いわく、あつく信じて学を好み、死を守りて道を善くす。危邦きほうには入らず、乱邦らんぼうにはらず。天下道あるときはあらわれ、道なきときはかくる。くにに道ありて、ひんにしてかついやしきははじなり。邦に道なくして、富みかつたっときもはじなり。

08-14
The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."
子曰、不在其位、不謀其政也、
いわく、その位にあらざれば、そのまつりごとはからず。
08-15
The Master said, "When the music master Chih first entered on his office, the finish of the Kwan Tsu was magnificent;-how it filled the ears!"
子曰、師摯之始、關雎之亂、洋洋乎盈耳哉、
いわく、師摯ししの始めは、関雎かんしょおわりのころおい洋洋として耳にてるかな。

08-16
The Master said, "Ardent and yet not upright, stupid and yet not attentive; simple and yet not sincere:-such persons I do not understand."
子曰、狂而不直、恫而不愿、悾悾而不信、吾不知之矣、
いわく、きょうにしてちょくならず、おろかにしてつつしみあらず、悾悾こうこうとして信ならずんば、われこれをらざるなり。

08-17
The Master said, "Learn as if you could not reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should lose it."
子曰、學如不及、猶恐失之、
いわく、がくおよばざるがごとくするも、なおこれを失わんことをおそる。
08-18
The Master said, "How majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yu held possession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!
子曰、巍巍乎、舜禹之有天下也、而不與焉、
いわく、巍巍ぎぎたるかなしゅんの天下をたもつや、しかしてこれにあずからず。

08-19
The Master said, "Great indeed was Yao as a sovereign! How majestic was he! It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yao corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue! The people could find no name for it.
"How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished! How glorious in the elegant regulations which he instituted!"
子曰、大哉、尭之爲君也、巍巍乎唯天爲大、唯尭則之、蕩蕩乎民無能名焉、巍巍乎其有成功也、煥乎其有文章、
いわく、だいなるかな、ぎょうきみたるや。巍巍ぎぎたるかな、ただ天を大なりとなし、ただぎょうのみこれにのっとる。蕩々とうとうたるかな、民よくこれにづくるなし。巍巍ぎぎたるかな、その成功あるや。かんとして、それ文章あり。

08-20
Shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed.
King Wu said, "I have ten able ministers."
Confucius said, "Is not the saying that talents are difficult to find, true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yu met, were they more abundant than in this of Chau, yet there was a woman among them. The able ministers were no more than nine men.
"King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. The virtue of the house of Chau may be said to have reached the highest point indeed."
舜有臣五人、而天下治、武王曰、予有亂臣十人、孔子曰才難、不其然乎、唐虞之際、於斯爲盛、有婦人焉、九人而已、三分天下有其二、以服事殷、周之徳、其可謂至徳也已矣、
しゅんに臣五人あり、しかして天下治まる。武王曰く、われ乱臣らんしん十人あり、と。孔子曰く、さいかたしとは、それ然らずや。唐虞とうぐの際、ここにおいて盛んとなす。婦人あり、九人のみ。天下を三分してその二をたもち、もっていん服事ふくじす。しゅうの徳は、至徳と謂うべきのみ。

08-21
The Master said, "I can find no flaw in the character of Yu. He used himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. His ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low, mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu."
子曰、禹吾無間然矣、菲飮食、而致孝乎鬼神、惡衣服、而致美乎黻冕、卑宮室、而盡力乎溝洫、禹吾無間然矣、
いわく、はわれ間然かんぜんするなし。飲食をうすくして、孝を鬼神に致し、衣服をしくして、美を黻冕ふつべんに致す。宮室をひくくして力を溝洫こうきょくに尽す。はわれ間然かんぜんするなし。

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-------------------------
子罕 第九

09-01
The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke were-profitableness, and also the appointments of Heaven, and perfect virtue.
子罕言利與命與仁、
子、まれに利を言う。命とともにし、仁とともにす

09-02
A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, "Great indeed is the philosopher K'ung! His learning is extensive, and yet he does not render his name famous by any particular thing."
The Master heard the observation, and said to his disciples, "What shall I practice? Shall I practice charioteering, or shall I practice archery? I will practice charioteering."
逹巷黨人曰、大哉孔子、博學而無所成名、子聞之、謂門弟子曰、吾何執、執御乎、執射乎、吾執御矣、
達巷たっこう党人とうじん曰く、大なるかな孔子。博学にして名を成すところなし、と。子これを聞き、門弟子もんていしに謂いて曰く、われ、いずれをらん。ぎょを執らんか、しゃを執らんか。われはぎょを執るものなり。

09-03
The Master said, "The linen cap is that prescribed by the rules of ceremony, but now a silk one is worn. It is economical, and I follow the common practice.
"The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the hall, but now the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That is arrogant. I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose the common
practice."
子曰、麻冕禮也、今也純儉、吾從衆、拜下禮也、今拜乎上泰也、雖違衆、吾從下、
いわく、麻冕まべんは礼なり。今やくろし、倹なり。われは衆に従わん。しもに拝するは礼なり。今やかみに拝す、泰なり。衆にたがうといえども、われは下にてするにしたがわん。

09-04
There were four things from which the Master was entirely free. He had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary predeterminations, no obstinacy, and no egoism.
子絶四、毋意、毋必、毋固、毋我、
子、つ。するなく、ひつするなく、なるなく、なるなし。

09-05
The Master was put in fear in K'wang.
He said, "After the death of King Wan, was not the cause of truth lodged here in me?
"If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then I, a future mortal! should not have got such a relation to that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the people of K'wang do to me?"
子畏於匡、曰、文王既沒、文不茲乎、天之將喪斯文也、後死者不得與於斯文也、天之未喪斯文也、匡人其如予何、
子、きょうす。曰く、文王、すでに没し、文、ここに在らずや。天のまさに斯文しぶんほろぼさんとするや、後死こうしの者、斯文にあずかるを得ざらしめん。天のいまだ斯文を喪ぼさざるや、匡人きょうひと、それわれをいかんせん。

09-06
A high officer asked Tsze-kung, saying, "May we not say that your Master is a sage? How various is his ability!"
Tsze-kung said, "Certainly Heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. He is about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is various."
The Master heard of the conversation and said, "Does the high officer know me? When I was young, my condition was low, and I acquired my ability in many things, but they were mean matters. Must the superior man have such variety of ability? He does not need variety of ability.
太宰問於子貢曰、夫子聖者與、何其多能也、子貢曰、固天縦之將聖、叉多能也、子聞之曰、太宰知我者乎、吾少也賤、故多能鄙事、君子多乎哉、不多也、
大宰たいさい子貢しこうに問うて曰く、夫子ふうしは聖者なるか。なんぞそれ多能なるや、と。子貢曰く、もとより天、これをゆるして聖をおこなわしめ、また多能なり、と。子、これを聞きて曰く、大宰はわれを知るか。われわかくしていやし。ゆえに鄙事ひじに多能なるなり。君子は多からんや。多ならざるなり。

09-07
Lao said, "The Master said, 'Having no official employment, I acquired many arts.'"
牢曰、子云、吾不試、故藝、
ろう曰く、子、云えることあり。われもちいられず。ゆえにげいあり、と。

09-08
The Master said, "Am I indeed possessed of knowledge? I am not knowing. But if a mean person, who appears quite empty-like, ask anything of me, I set it forth from one end to the other, and exhaust it."
子曰、吾有知乎哉、無知也、有鄙夫、來問於我、空空如也、我叩其兩端而竭焉、
いわく、われに知あらんや。知なきなり。鄙夫ひふありてわれに問うに、空空如こうこうじょたり。われはその両端りょうたんたたいてこれをつくすのみ。

09-09
The Master said, "The Fang bird does not come; the river sends forth no map:-it is all over with me!"
子曰、鳳鳥不至、河不出圖、吾已矣夫、
いわく、鳳鳥ほうちょう至らず、いださず。われんぬるかな。

09-10
When the Master saw a person in a mourning dress, or any one with the cap and upper and lower garments of full dress, or a blind person, on observing them approaching, though they were younger than himself, he would rise up, and if he had to pass by them, he would do so hastily.
子見齊衰者冕衣裳者與瞽者、見之雖少者必作、過之必趨、
子、斉衰しさいなる者、冕衣裳べんいしょうなる者と、瞽者こしゃとを見るに、これを見るとき、わかしといえども必ずつ。これを過ぎるに必ずはしる。

09-11
Yen Yuan, in admiration of the Master's doctrines, sighed and said, "I looked up to them, and they seemed to become more high; I tried to penetrate them, and they seemed to become more firm; I looked at them before me, and suddenly they seemed to be behind.
"The Master, by orderly method, skillfully leads men on. He enlarged my mind with learning, and taught me the restraints of propriety.
"When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I cannot do so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems something to stand right up before me; but though I wish to follow and lay hold
of it, I really find no way to do so."
顔淵喟然歎曰、仰之彌高、鑽之彌堅、瞻之在前、忽焉在後、夫子循循善誘人、博我以文、約我以禮、欲罷不能、既竭吾才、如有所立卓爾、雖欲從之、末由也已、
顔淵がんえん喟然きぜんとして歎じて曰く、これを仰げばいよいよ高く、これをればいよいよ堅し。これをれば前にあり、忽焉こつえんとしてしりえにあり。夫子、循循然じゅんじゅんぜんとして善く人をみちびく。われを博むるに文をもってし、われを約するに礼をもってす。めんと欲してあたわず。すでにわが才をつくす。立つ所あって卓爾たくじたるがごとし。これに従わんと欲すといえども、きのみ。

09-12
The Master being very ill, Tsze-lu wished the disciples to act as ministers to him.
During a remission of his illness, he said, "Long has the conduct of Yu been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers when I have them not, whom should I impose upon? Should I impose upon Heaven?
"Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of ministers, is it not better that I should die in the hands of you, my disciples? And though I may not get a great burial, shall I die upon the road?"
子疾病、子路使門人爲臣、病間曰、久矣哉、由之行詐也、無臣而爲有臣、吾誰欺、欺天乎、且予與其死於臣之手也、無寧死於二三子之手乎、且予縦不得大葬、予死於道路乎、
子、やまへいす。子路しろ、門人をして臣たらしむ。病いかんなるとき曰く、久しいかな、ゆういつわりを行なうや。臣なくして臣ありとなす。われ、たれをかあざむかん。天を欺かんや。かつわれ、それ臣の手に死なんよりは、無寧むし二三子にさんしの手に死なん。かつわれたとい大葬を得ざるも、われ、道路に死なんや。

09-13
Tsze-kung said, "There is a beautiful gem here. Should I lay it up in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a good price and sell it?" The Master said, "Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait for one to offer the price."
子貢曰、有美玉於斯、匵韞而藏諸、求善賈而沽諸、子曰、沽之哉、沽之哉、我待賈者也、
子貢曰く、ここに美玉びぎょくあり。ひつおさめてこれをぞうせんか。善賈ぜんこを求めてこれをらんか。いわく、これをらんかな、これを沽らんかな。われはを待つ者なり。

09-14
The Master was wishing to go and live among the nine wild tribes of the east.
Some one said, "They are rude. How can you do such a thing?" The Master said, "If a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness would there be?"
子欲居九夷、或曰、陋如之何、子曰、君子居之、何陋之有、
子、九夷きゅういらんと欲す。あるひと曰く、ろうなる、これをいかんせん。いわく、君子これに居らば、なんのろうなることかこれあらん。

09-15
The Master said, "I returned from Wei to Lu, and then the music was reformed, and the pieces in the Royal songs and Praise songs all found their proper places."
子曰、吾自衛反於魯、然後樂正、雅頌各得其所、
いわく、われえいよりかえる。しかるのち、がく正しく、雅頌がしょうおのおのそのところをたり。

09-16
The Master said, "Abroad, to serve the high ministers and nobles; at home, to serve one's father and elder brothers; in all duties to the dead, not to dare not to exert one's self; and not to be overcome of wine:-which one of these things do I attain to?"
子曰、出則事公卿、入則事父兄、喪事不敢不勉、不爲酒困、何有於我哉、
いわく、でては公卿こうけいつかえ、りては父兄につかう。喪事そうじはあえて勉めずんばあらず。酒のためにくるしめられず。われにおいて何かあらんや。

09-17
The Master standing by a stream, said, "It passes on just like this, not ceasing day or night!"
子在川上曰、逝者如斯夫、不舎晝夜、
子、川のほとりにありて曰く、くものはかくのごときかな、昼夜をかず
09-18
The Master said, "I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."
子曰、吾未見好徳如好色者也、
いわく、われはいまだ徳を好むこと、いろを好むがごとき者を見ず。

09-19
The Master said, "The prosecution of learning may be compared to what may happen in raising a mound. If there want but one basket of earth to complete the work, and I stop, the stopping is my own work. It may be compared to throwing down the earth on the level ground. Though but one basketful is thrown at a time, the advancing with it my own going forward."
子曰、譬如爲山、未成一簣、止吾止也、譬如平地、雖覆一簣、進吾往也、
いわく、たとえば山をつくるがごとし。いまだ成らざること一簣いっきなるも、むはわれ止むなり。たとえば地をたいらにするがごとし。一簣いっきえすといえども、進むはわれくなり。

09-20
The Master said, "Never flagging when I set forth anything to him;-ah! that is Hui."
子曰、語之而不惰者、其囘也與、
いわく、これと語りておこたらざる者は、それかいなるか。
09-21
The Master said of Yen Yuan, "Alas! I saw his constant advance. I never saw him stop in his progress."
子謂顔淵曰、惜乎、吾見其進也、未見其止也、
子、顔淵がんえんを謂いて曰く、しいかな。われはその進むを見たり。いまだそのとどまるをざりき。

09-22
The Master said, "There are cases in which the blade springs, but the plant does not go on to flower! There are cases where it flowers but fruit is not subsequently produced!"
子曰、苗而不秀者有矣夫、秀而不實者有矣夫、
いわく、なえにしていでざるものあるかな。秀いでてみのらざるものあるかな。

09-23
The Master said, "A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal to our present? If he reach the age of forty or fifty, and has not made himself heard of, then indeed he will not be worth being regarded with respect."
子曰、後生可畏也、焉知來者之不如今也、四十五十而無聞焉、斯亦不足畏也已矣、
いわく、後生こうせいおそるべし。いずくんぞ来者らいしゃの今にかざるを知らんや。四十五十にして聞こゆるなきは、これまたおそるるにらざるなり。

09-24
The Master said, "Can men refuse to assent to the words of strict admonition? But it is reforming the conduct because of them which is valuable. Can men refuse to be pleased with words of gentle advice? But it is unfolding their aim which is valuable. If a man be pleased with these words, but does not unfold their aim, and assents to those, but does not reform his conduct, I can really do nothing with him."
子曰、法語之言、能無從乎、改之爲貴、巽與之言、能無説乎、繹之爲貴、説而不繹、從而不改、吾末如之何也已矣、
いわく、法語のげんは、よく従うなからんや。これを改むるをたっとしとなす。巽与そんよの言は、よくよろこぶなからんや。これをたずぬるをたっとしとなす。よろこんでたずねず、従って改めざるは、われこれをいかんともするきのみ。

09-25
The Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."
子曰、主忠信、無友不如己者、過則勿憚改、
いわく、忠信をしゅとし、おのれにしかざる者を友とするなかれ。過ちては改むるにはばかることなかれ。
09-26
The Master said, "The commander of the forces of a large state may be carried off, but the will of even a common man cannot be taken from him."
子曰、三軍可奪帥也、匹夫不可奪志也、
いわく、三軍はすいを奪うべきなり。匹夫ひっぷこころざしを奪うべからざるなり。

09-27
The Master said, "Dressed himself in a tattered robe quilted with hemp, yet standing by the side of men dressed in furs, and not ashamed;-ah! it is Yu who is equal to this!
子曰、衣敝忮袍、與衣孤貉者立而不恥者、其由也與、
いわく、やぶれたる忮袍おんぽう孤貉こかくたる者と立ちて恥じざる者は、それ由なるか。

09-28
"He dislikes none, he covets nothing;-what can he do but what is good!"
Tsze-lu kept continually repeating these words of the ode, when the Master said, "Those things are by no means sufficient to constitute perfect excellence."
不縕不求、何用不臧、子路終身誦之、子曰、是道也、何足以臧、
そこなわず求めず。何をってよろしからざらん、ということあり。子路しろ終身これをしょうす。いわく、この道や、なんぞもってしとするに足らん。

09-29
The Master said, "When the year becomes cold, then we know how the pine and the cypress are the last to lose their leaves."
子曰、歳寒、然後知松栢之後彫也、
いわく、とし寒くして、しかるにちに松栢しょうはくの後れてしぼむを知るなり。
09-30
The Master said, "The wise are free from perplexities; the virtuous from anxiety; and the bold from fear."
子曰、知者不惑、仁者不憂、勇者不懼、
いわく、知者はまどわず。仁者じんしゃうれえず。勇者はおそれず。

09-31
The Master said, "There are some with whom we may study in common, but we shall find them unable to go along with us to principles. Perhaps we may go on with them to principles, but we shall find them
unable to get established in those along with us. Or if we may get so established along with them, we shall find them unable to weigh occurring events along with us."
子曰、可與共學、未可與適道、可與適道、未可與立、可與立、未可與權、
いわく、ともにともに学ぶべきも、いまだともに道をくべからず。ともに道をくべきも、いまだともに立つべからず。ともに立つべきも、いまだともはかるべからず。

09-32
"How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter and turn! Do I not think of you? But your house is distant."
The Master said, "It is the want of thought about it. How is it distant?"
唐棣之華、偏其反而、豈不爾思、室是遠而、子曰、未之思也、夫何遠之有哉、
唐棣とうていはなへんとしてそれひるがえる。あになんじを思わざらんや。しつ、これ遠きのみ、とあり。いわく、いまだこれを思わざるかな。なんのとおきことかこれあらん。

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郷党 第十

10-01
Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he were not able to speak.
When he was in the prince's ancestral temple, or in the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.
孔子於郷黨恂恂如也、似不能言者、其在宗廟朝廷、便便言唯謹爾、
孔子、郷党きょうとうにおいては、恂恂如じゅんじゅんじょたり。言うあたわざる者に似たり。その宗廟、朝廷にあるや、便便べんべんとして言う。ただ謹しむのみ。

10-02
When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers of the lower grade, he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.
When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.
朝與下大夫言侃侃如也、與上大夫言誾如也、君在踧踖如也、與與如也、
ちょうにおいて下大夫かたいふと言うには、侃侃如かんかんじょたり。上大夫じょうたいふと言うには、誾誾如ぎんぎんじょたり。きみませば、踧踖如しゅくせきじょたり、与与如よよじょたり。

10-03
When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty.
He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted.
He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.
When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, "The visitor is not turning round any more."
君召使擯、色勃如也、足躩如也、揖所與立、左右其手、衣前後襜如也、趨進翼如也、賓退、必復命曰、賓不顧矣、
きみしてひんせしむれば、色、勃如ぼつじょたり。足、躩如かくじょたり。ともに立つ所にゆうするには、手を左右にし、ころもの前後は襜如せんじょたり。はしり進むには翼如よくじょたり。ひん、退けば必ず復命して曰く、賓、かえりみずなりぬ。

10-04
When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.
When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gateway; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold.
When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them.
He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared not breathe.
When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look. When he had got the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.
入公門、鞠躬如也、如不容、立不中門、行不履閾、過位色勃如也、足躩如也、其言似不足者、攝齊升堂鞠躬如也、屏氣似不息者、出降一等、逞顔色怡怡如也、沒階趨進翼如也、復其位踧踖如也、
公門に入るには、鞠躬如きくきゅうじょたり。れられざるがごとし。立つこと門にあたらず。行くにしきいまず。位を過ぐるには、いろ勃如ぼつじょたり、足、躩如かくじょたり。その言は足らざる者に似たり。もすそかかげて堂にのぼるには、鞠躬如たり。気をひそめて、いきせざる者に似たり。出でて一等をくだれば、顔色をはなち、怡怡如いいじょたり。きざはしつくしてはしり進むには、翼如よくじょたり。その位にかえりては、踧踖如しゅくせきじょたり。

10-05
When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground.
In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placid appearance.
At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.
執圭鞠躬如也、如不勝、上如揖、下如授、勃如戰色、足??如有循也、享禮有容色、私覿愉愉如也、
けい るには鞠躬如きくきゅうじょたり。えざるがごとくす。ぐるにはゆうするがごとくし、ぐるには授くるがごとくす。勃如ぼつじょとしておののく色あり。足は??しゅくしゅくとしてしたがうところあるがごとし。享礼きょうれいには容色あり。私覿してきには、愉愉如ゆゆじょたり。

10-06
The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce color, in the ornaments of his dress.
Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish color.
In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.
Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn's fur one of white; and over fox's fur one of yellow.
The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short.
He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body.
When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger.
When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle.
His undergarment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.
He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence.
On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and presented himself at court.
君子不以紺緅飾、紅紫不以爲褻服、當暑袗絺綌、必表而出、緇衣羔裘、素衣麑裘、黄衣狐裘、褻裘長、短右袂、必有寢衣、長一身有半、狐貉の厚以居、去喪無所不佩、非帷裳必殺之、羔裘玄冠不以弔、吉月必朝服而朝、
君子は紺緅かんしゅうをもって飾りとせず。紅紫こうしはもって褻服せつふくとなさず。しょにあたってはひとえ絺綌ちげきもてす。必ず表してこれを出だす。緇衣しいには羔裘こうきゅう素衣そいには麑裘げいきゅう黄衣こういには狐裘こきゅう褻裘せつきゅうは長く、右袂うべいを短くす。必ず寝衣しんいあり。長さ一身有半。狐貉こかくの厚きもって居る。喪を去ればびざるところなし。帷裳いしょうにあらざれば、必ずこれをさいす。羔裘こうきゅう玄冠げんかんはもってちょうせず。吉月きつげつには必ず朝服ちょうふくしてちょうす。

10-07
When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth.
When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.
齊必有明衣布也、斎必變食、居必遷坐、
さいするには必ず明衣めいいあり、布もてす。斎するには必ず食を変ず。居には必ず坐をうつす。

10-08
He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his mince meat cut quite small.
He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.
He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce.
Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.
He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.
He was never without ginger when he ate. He did not eat much.
When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could not eat it.
When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.
Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.
食不厭精、膾不厭細、食饐而餲、魚餒而肉敗不食、色惡不食、臭惡不食、失飪不食、不時不食、割不正不食、不得其醤不食、肉雖多不使勝食氣、唯酒無量、不及亂、沽酒市脯不食、不撤薑食、不多食、祭於公不宿肉、祭肉不出三日、出三日不食之矣、食不語、寢不言、雖疏食菜羮瓜、祭必齊如也、
は精なるをいとわず、かいは細きを厭わず。してあいし、魚のたいし肉のやぶれたるはくらわず。色の悪しきは食わず、においの悪しきは食わず、じんを失えば食わず。時ならざるは食わず。割くこと正しからざれば食わず。そのしょうを得ざれば食わず。肉は多しといえども?いいたしめず。ただ酒は量なし、乱に及ばず。沽酒こしゅ市脯しほは食わず。きょうを撤して食わず。多くは食わず。公に祭れば肉を宿とどめず。祭肉は三日さんじつを出ださず。三日を出ずれば、これを食わず。食うに語らず、ねては言わず。蔬食そし菜羮さいこうといえども、祭れば必ず斉如せいじょたり。

10-09
If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
席不正不坐、
席正しからざれば、坐せず。

10-10
When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried staffs going out, he also went out immediately after.
When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps.
郷人飮酒、杖者出斯出矣、郷人儺、朝服而立於阼階、
郷人きょうじん、飲酒するに、じょうする者出ずれば、ここにず。郷人、するときは、朝服して阼階そかいに立つ。

10-11
When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.
問人於他邦、再拜而送之、
人を他邦たほうに問わしむるには、再拝してこれを送る。
10-12
Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste it."
康子饋藥、拜而受之、曰、丘未達、不敢嘗、
康子こうし、薬をおくる。拝してこれを受く。曰く、きゅう、いまだ達せず。あえてめず、と。
10-13
The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.
厩焚、子退朝曰、傷人乎、不問馬、
うまやけたり。子、ちょうより退いて曰く、人をきずつくるか、と。馬をわず。

10-14
When the he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive.
君賜食、必正席先嘗之、君賜腥、必熟而薦之、君賜生、必畜之、
きみしょくたまえば、必ず席を正してまずこれをむ。君、せいたまえば、必ず熟してこれをすすむ。君、生をたまえば、必ずこれをう。

10-15
When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything.
侍食於君、君祭先飯、
君に食にするに、君祭ればまずはんす。
10-16
When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.
疾、君視之、東首加朝服、紳、
しつありて、君、これを視れば、東首とうしゅし、朝服を加え、しん?く。

10-17
When the prince's order called him, without waiting for his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.
君命召、不俟駕行矣、
君、命じてせば、たずして行く。
10-18
When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about everything.
入大廟、毎事問、
太廟たいびょうに入りて、事ごとに問えり。

10-19
When any of his friends died, if he had no relations offices, he would say, "I will bury him."
When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses, he did not bow.
The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.
朋友死無所歸、曰於我殯、朋友之饋、雖車馬、非祭肉、不拜、
朋友ほうゆう死して帰するところなければ、曰く、われにおいてひんせよ、と。朋友よりのおくりものは、車馬といえども、祭肉にあらざればはいせず。

10-20
In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment.
寢不尸、居不容、
ぬるにせず。居るにかたちつくらず。

10-21
When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner.
To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population.
When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up.
On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.
子見齊衰者、雖狎必變、見冕者與瞽者、雖褻必以貌、凶服者式之、式負版者、有盛饌必變色而作、迅雷風烈必變、
斉衰しさいする者を見れば、れたりといえども必ず変ず。べんする者と瞽者こしゃとを見れば、れたりといえども必ずかたちをもってす。凶服きょうふくする者はこれにしょくす。負版ふばんする者にしょくす。盛饌せいせんあれば、必ず色を変じてつ。迅雷じんらい風烈ふうれつには必ず変ず。

10-22
When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holding the cord.
When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.
升車、必正立執綏、車中不内顧、不疾言、不親指、
車にのぼるに必ず正立せいりつしてすいる。車中にては、内顧ないこせず、疾言しつげんせず、親指しんしせず。

10-23
Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by and by settles.
The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its season! At its season!" Tsze-lu made a motion to it. Thrice it smelt him and then rose.
色斯擧矣、翔而後集、曰、山梁雌雉、時哉、時哉、子路共之、三嗅而作、
いろすればここにがる。かけりてのちにまる、とあり。曰く、山梁さんりょう雌雉しちときなるかな、時なるかな、と。子路これをきょうせしに、三たびいでちたりき。


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-------------------------
先進 第十一

11-01
The Master said, "The men of former times in the matters of ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of these latter times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished gentlemen.
"If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of former times."
子曰、先進於禮樂野人也、後進於禮樂君子也、如用之、則吾從先進、
いわく、 先進せんしん礼楽れいがくにおけるや、野人やじんなり。後進の礼楽におけるや、君子なり。もしこれを用うるには、われは先進にしたがわん。

11-02
The Master said, "Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'ai, there are none to be found to enter my door."
子曰、從我於陳蔡者、皆不及門者也、
いわく、われにちんさいに従いし者は、みな門に及ばざりき。

11-03
Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-kung; for their ability in speech, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for their administrative talents, Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their literary acquirements, Tsze-yu and Tsze-hsia.
徳行顔淵閔子騫冉伯牛仲弓、言語宰我子貢、政事冉有季路、文學子游子夏、
徳行とくこうには顔淵がんえん閔子騫びんしけん冉伯牛ぜんはくぎゅう仲弓ちゅうきゅう。言語には宰我さいが子貢しこう政事せいじには冉有ぜんゆう季路きろ。文学には子游しゆう子夏しかありき。

11-04
The Master said, "Hui gives me no assistance. There is nothing that I say in which he does not delight."
子曰、囘也非助我者也、於吾言無所不説、
いわく、回や、われを助くる者にあらざるなり。わが言においてよろこばざるところなし。
11-05
The Master said, "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other people say nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers."
子曰、孝哉、閔子騫、人不問於其父母昆弟之言、
いわく、孝なるかな閔子騫びんしけん。人、その父母昆弟こんていかんするの言あらず
11-06
Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.
南容三復白圭、孔子以其兄之子妻之、
南容なんよう、三たび白圭はくけいふくす。孔子、その兄の子をもってこれにあわす。

11-07
Chi K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. Unfortunately his appointed time was short, and he died. Now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did."
季康子問、弟子孰爲好學、孔子對曰、有顔囘者、好學、不幸短命死矣、今他則亡、
季康子きこうし問う、弟子ていしたれか学を好むとなす。孔子対えて曰く、顔回がんかいなる者ありて学を好む。不幸、短命たんめいにして死せり。今やすなわちなし。

11-08
When Yen Yuan died, Yen Lu begged the carriage of the Master to sell and get an outer shell for his son's coffin.
The Master said, "Every one calls his son his son, whether he has talents or has not talents. There was Li; when he died, he had a coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for him, because, having followed in the rear of the great officers, it was not proper that I should walk on foot."
顔淵死、顔路請子之車以爲之椁、子曰、才不才、亦各言其子也、鯉也死、有棺而無椁、吾不徒行以爲之椁、以吾從大夫之後、不可徒行也、
顔淵がんえん死す。顔路がんろの車をい、もってこれがかくつくらんとす。いわく、才、不才あるも、またおのおのそのと言うなり。や死せしとき、かんありてかくなし。われ徒行とこうしてもってこれがかくつくらざりしは、われは大夫のしりえに従い、徒行すべからざりしをもってなり。

11-09
When Yen Yuan died, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!"
顔淵死、子曰、噫天喪予、天喪予、
がんえん死す。いわく、ああ、天、われをほろぼすか。天、われをほろぼすか。

11-10
When Yen Yuan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the disciples who were with him said, "Master, your grief is excessive!"
"Is it excessive?" said he. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man, for whom should I mourn?"
顔淵死、子哭之慟、從者曰、子慟矣、子曰有慟乎、非夫人之爲慟、而誰爲慟、
顔淵がんえん死す。子、これをこくしてどうす。従者じゅうしゃ曰く、子、どうするか。曰く、どうあらんには、かの人のためにどうするにあらずして、がためにせん。

11-11
When Yen Yuan died, the disciples wished to give him a great funeral, and the Master said, "You may not do so."
The disciples did bury him in great style.
The Master said, "Hui behaved towards me as his father. I have not been able to treat him as my son. The fault is not mine; it belongs to you, O disciples."
顔淵死、門人欲厚葬之、子曰、不可、門人厚葬之、子曰、囘也視予猶父也、予不得視猶子也、非我也、夫二三子也、
がんえん死す。門人、厚くこれをほうむらんと欲す。いわく、不可なり、と。門人、厚くこれをほうむれり。いわく、かいや、われを視ることなお父のごとかりき。われは視ることなお子のごとくするを得ず。われにあらざるなり。かの二三子にさんしなり。

11-12
Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits of the dead. The Master said, "While you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?" Chi Lu added, "I venture to ask about death?" He was answered, "While you do not know life, how can you know about death?"
季路問事鬼神、子曰、未能事人、焉能事鬼、曰敢問死、曰未知生、焉知死、
季路きろ鬼神きしんつかうるを問う。いわく、いまだ人につかうるあたわず、いずくんぞよくつかえん。曰く、あえて死を問う。曰く、いまだせいを知らず、いずくんぞ死をらん。

11-13
The disciple Min was standing by his side, looking bland and precise; Tsze-lu, looking bold and soldierly; Zan Yu and Tsze-kung, with a free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased.
He said, "Yu, there!-he will not die a natural death."
閔子騫侍側、誾誾如也、子路行行如也、冉子子貢侃侃如也、子樂、曰、若由也不得其死然、
閔子びんしかたわらす、誾誾如ぎんぎんじょたり。子路しろ行行如こうこうじょたり。冉有ぜんゆう子貢しこう侃侃如かんかんじょたり。子楽しむ。ゆうのごとくんば、その死然しぜんを得ざらん

11-14
Some parties in Lu were going to take down and rebuild the Long Treasury.
Min Tsze-ch'ien said, "Suppose it were to be repaired after its old style;-why must it be altered and made anew?"
The Master said, "This man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure to hit the point."
魯人爲長府、閔子騫曰、仍舊貫如之何、何必改作、子曰、夫人不言、言必有中、
魯人ろひと長府ちょうふつくらんとす。閔子騫びんしけん曰く、旧貫きゅうかんによらば、これをいかんせん。なんぞ必ずしも改めつくらん。いわく、かの人言わず、言えば必ずあたるあり。

11-15
The Master said, "What has the lute of Yu to do in my door?"
The other disciples began not to respect Tszelu. The Master said, "Yu has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the inner apartments."
子曰、由之鼓瑟、奚爲於丘之門、門人不敬子路、子曰、由也升堂矣、未入於室也、
いわく、ゆうしつ、なんすれぞきゅうの門においてせん。門人、子路しろを敬せず。いわく、由や、堂にのぼれり。いまだ室にらざるのみ。

11-16
Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Shih or Shang, was the superior. The Master said, "Shih goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not come up to it."
"Then," said Tsze-kung, "the superiority is with Shih, I suppose."
The Master said, "To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short."
子貢問、師與商也孰賢乎、子曰、師也過、商也不及、曰、然則師愈與、子曰、過猶不及也、
子貢しこう問う、しょうといずれかまされる。いわく、師や過ぎたり。商や及ばず。曰く、しからばすなわち師まされるか。いわく、過ぎたるはなおおよばざるがごとし。

11-17
The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chau had been, and yet Ch'iu collected his imposts for him, and increased his wealth.
The Master said, "He is no disciple of mine. My little children, beat the drum and assail him."
季氏富於周公、而求也爲之聚斂而附益之、子曰、非吾徒也、小子鳴鼓而攻之、可也、
季氏きし周公しゅうこうよりも富む。しこうしてきゅうや、これがために聚斂しゅうれんしてこれに附益ふえきす。いわく、わがにあらざるなり。小子しょうしを鳴らしてこれを攻めてなり。

11-18
Ch'ai is simple. Shan is dull. Shih is specious. Yu is coarse.
柴也愚、參也魯、師也辟、由也喭、
さいしんへきゆうがんなり。

11-19
The Master said, "There is Hui! He has nearly attained to perfect virtue. He is often in want.
"Ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven, and his goods are increased by him. Yet his judgments are often correct."
子曰、囘也其庶乎、屡空、賜不受命而貨殖焉、億則屡中、
いわく、かいやそれしばしばむなしきにちかは命を受けずして貨殖かしょくす。はかればすなわちしばしばあたる。

11-20
Tsze-chang asked what were the characteristics of the good man. The Master said, "He does not tread in the footsteps of others, but moreover, he does not enter the chamber of the sage."
子張問善人之道、子曰、不踐迹、亦不入於室、
子張しちょう、善人の道を問う。いわく、あとまざれば、またしつに入らず。
11-21
The Master said, "If, because a man's discourse appears solid and sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man? or is his gravity only in appearance?"
子曰、論篤是與、君子者乎、色莊者乎、
いわく、論のあつきにこれくみす、とあり。君子者くんししゃか、色荘しきそうなる者か。

11-22
Tsze-lu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard. The Master said, "There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted;-why should you act on that principle of immediately carrying into practice what you hear?" Zan Yu asked the same, whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and the Master answered, "Immediately carry into practice what you hear." Kung-hsi Hwa said, "Yu asked whether he should carry immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, 'There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.' Ch'iu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and you said, 'Carry it immediately into practice.' I, Ch'ih, am perplexed, and venture to ask you for an explanation." The Master said, "Ch'iu is retiring and slow; therefore I urged him forward. Yu has more than his own share of energy; therefore I kept him back."
子路問、聞斯行諸、子曰、有父兄在、如之何其聞斯行之也、冉有問、聞斯行諸、子曰、聞斯行之、公西華曰、由也問、聞斯行諸、子曰、有父兄在、求也問、聞斯行諸、子曰、聞斯行之、赤也惑、敢問、子曰、求也退、故進之、由也兼人、故退之、
しろ、聞けばここにこれを行う、(の語)を問う。いわく、父兄のいますあり、これをいかんぞそれ、聞いてここにこれを行なわんや。冉有ぜんゆう、聞けばここにこれを行なう、を問う。いわく、聞いてここにこれを行なうなり。公西華こうせいか曰く、ゆうや、聞けばここにこれを行なう、を問いしに、子曰く、父兄のいますあり、と。求や、聞けばここにこれを行なう、を問いしに、子曰く、聞いてここにこれを行なうなり、と。せきや惑う。あえて問う。いわく、きゅうや退く。ゆえにこれを進む。ゆうや人をぬ。ゆえにこれを退く。

11-23
The Master was put in fear in K'wang and Yen Yuan fell behind. The Master, on his rejoining him, said, "I thought you had died." Hui replied, "While you were alive, how should I presume to die?"
子畏於匡、顔淵後、子曰、吾以女爲死矣、曰、子在、囘何敢死、
子、きょうす。顔淵がんえんおくる。いわく、われなんじをもって死せりとなす。曰く、子います。かい、なんぞあえて死せん。

11-24
Chi Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yu and Zan Ch'iu could be called great ministers.
The Master said, "I thought you would ask about some extraordinary individuals, and you only ask about Yu and Ch'iu!
"What is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince according to what is right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires.
"Now, as to Yu and Ch'iu, they may be called ordinary ministers."
Tsze-zan said, "Then they will always follow their chief;-win they?"
The Master said, "In an act of parricide or regicide, they would not follow him."
季子然問、仲由冉求、可謂大臣與、子曰、吾以子爲異之問、曾由與求之問、所謂大臣者、以道事君、不可則止、今由與求也、可謂具臣矣、曰、然則從之者與、子曰、弑父與君、亦不從也、
季子然きしぜん、問う。仲由ちゅうゆう冉求ぜんきゅう大臣だいしんと謂うべきか。いわく、われは子をもって、異なるをこれ問うとなす。すなわちゆうきゅうとをこれ問う。いわゆる大臣なる者は、道をもって君につかえ、きかれざればすなわちむ。今、由と求や、具臣ぐしんと謂うべきなり。曰く、しからばすなわちこれに従う者か。いわく、父と君とをしいするには、また従わざるなり。

11-25
Tsze-lu got Tsze-kao appointed governor of Pi.
The Master said, "You are injuring a man's son."
Tsze-lu said, "There are, there, common people and officers; there are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?"
The Master said, "It is on this account that I hate your glib-tongued people."
子路使子羔爲費宰、子曰、賊夫人之子、子路曰、有民人焉、有社稷焉、何必讀書然後爲學、子曰、是故惡夫佞者、
子路しろ子羔しこうをしてさいたらしむ。いわく、かの人の子をそこなう、と。子路曰く、民人みんじんあり、社稷しゃしょくあり、なんぞ必ずしも書を読んで、しかるのちに学となさん。いわく、このゆえにかの佞者ねいしゃにくむ。

11-26
Tsze-lu, Tsang Hsi, Zan Yu, and Kunghsi Hwa were sitting by the Master.
He said to them, "Though I am a day or so older than you, do not think of that.
"From day to day you are saying, 'We are not known.' If some ruler were to know you, what would you like to do?"
Tsze-lu hastily and lightly replied, "Suppose the case of a state of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large cities; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables:-if I were intrusted with the government of it, in three years' time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct." The Master smiled at him.
Turning to Yen Yu, he said, "Ch'iu, what are your wishes?" Ch'iu replied, "Suppose a state of sixty or seventy li square, or one of fifty or sixty, and let me have the government of it;-in three years' time, I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to teaching them the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that."
"What are your wishes, Ch'ih," said the Master next to Kung-hsi Hwa. Ch'ih replied, "I do not say that my ability extends to these things, but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the
sovereign, I should like, dressed in the dark square-made robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small assistant."
Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Hsi, "Tien, what are your wishes?" Tien, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside, and "My wishes," he said, "are different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen." "What harm is there in that?" said the Master; "do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes." Tien then said, "In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the I, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing." The Master heaved a sigh and said, "I give my
approval to Tien."
The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsi remained behind, and said, "What do you think of the words of these three friends?" The Master replied, "They simply told each one his wishes."
Hsi pursued, "Master, why did you smile at Yu?"
He was answered, "The management of a state demands the rules of propriety. His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him."
Hsi again said, "But was it not a state which Ch'iu proposed for himself?" The reply was, "Yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy li or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a state?"
Once more, Hsi inquired, "And was it not a state which Ch'ih proposed for himself?" The Master again replied, "Yes; who but princes have to do with ancestral temples, and with audiences but the sovereign? If Ch'ih were to be a small assistant in these services, who could be a great one?
子路曾皙冉有公西華、侍坐、子曰、以吾一日長乎爾、無吾以也、居則曰、不吾知也、如或知爾則何以哉、子路率爾對曰、千乘之國、攝乎大國之間、加之以師旅、因之以飢饉、由也爲之、比及三年、可使有勇且知方也、夫子哂之、求爾何如、對曰、方六七十、如五六十、求也爲之、比及三年、可使足民也、如其禮樂、以俟君子、赤爾何如、對曰、非曰能之也、願學焉、宗廟之事、如會同、端章甫、願爲小相焉、點爾何如、鼓瑟希、鏗爾舎瑟而作、對曰、異乎三子者之撰、子曰、何傷乎、亦各言其志也、曰、莫春者春服既成、得冠者五六人童子六七人、浴乎沂、風乎舞雩、詠而歸、夫子喟然歎曰、吾與點也、三子者出、曾皙後、夫三子者之言何如、子曰、亦各言其志也已矣、曰、夫子何哂由也、子曰、爲國以禮、其言不譲、是故哂之、唯求則非邦也與、安見方六七十如五六十而非邦也者、唯赤則非邦也與、宗廟之事如會同非諸侯如之何、赤也爲之小相、孰能爲之大相、
子路しろ曾晳そうせき冉有ぜんゆう公西華こうせいか侍坐じざす。いわく、われ一日なんじに長ずるをもって、われをもってするなかれ。りてはすなわち曰く、われを知らざるなり、と。もしなんじを知るものあらば、すなわち何をもってせんや。子路、率爾そつじとしてこたえて曰く、千乗せんじょうの国、大国のあいだはさまれ、これに加うるに師旅しりょをもってし、これによるに饑饉ききんをもってす。ゆうやこれをおさめ、三年に及ぶころおい、勇ありてかつほうを知らしむべきなり。夫子、これをわらう。求、なんじはいかん。対えて曰く、ほう、六、七十、もしくは五、六十、求やこれをおさめ、三年に及ぶころおい、民を足らしむべし。その礼楽のごときは、もって君子をたん。せき、なんじはいかん。対えて曰く、これをよくすると曰うにはあらず。願わくはこれを学ばん。宗廟の事、もしくは会同かいどうに、端章甫たんしょうほして、願わくは小相とならん。点、なんじはいかん。しつを鼓することまれなり。鏗爾こうじとして瑟をいてつ。対えて曰く、三子者さんししゃの撰に異なり。いわく、なんぞいたまんや。またおのおのその志を言うなり。曰く、暮春ぼしゅんには、春服すでに成る。冠する者五、六人、童子六、七人、に浴し、舞雩ぶうに風し、えいじて帰らん。夫子、喟然きぜんとして歎じて曰く、われは点にくみせん。三子者出ず。曾晳そうせきおくる。曾晳そうせき曰く、かの三子者の言はいかん。いわく、またおのおのそのこころざしを言うのみ。曰く、夫子、なんぞ由をわらうや。曰く、国をおさむるには礼をもってす。その言ゆずらず。このゆえにこれをわらう。ただ求はすなわち邦にあらざるか。いずくんぞほう六、七十、もしくは五、六十にして、邦にあらざる者を見んや。ただ赤はすなわち邦にあらざるか。宗廟そうびょう会同かいどうは諸侯にあらずしてなんぞ。赤やこれが小たらば、たれかよくこれがだいとならん。

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顔淵 第十二

12-01
Yen Yuan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, an under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it from others?"
Yen Yuan said, "I beg to ask the steps of that process." The Master replied, "Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety." Yen Yuan then said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."
顔淵問仁、子曰、克己復禮爲仁、一日克己復禮、天下歸仁焉、爲仁由己、而由人乎哉、顔淵曰、請問其目、子曰、非禮勿視、非禮勿聽、非禮勿言、非禮勿動、顔淵曰、囘雖不敏、請事斯語矣、
顔淵がんえん、仁を問う。いわく、おのれにち、礼にえるを仁となす。一日、おのれにちて礼にえらば、天下仁にせん。仁をなすはおのれにる。しこうして人に由らんや。顔淵曰く、そのもくを請い問う。いわく、非礼は視るなかれ、非礼は聴くなかれ、非礼は言うなかれ、非礼は動くなかれ。顔淵曰く、回、不敏ふびんなりといえども、請う、この語をこととせん。

12-02
Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, when you go abroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to employ the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you in the country, and none in the family." Chung-kung said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."
仲弓問仁、子曰、出門如見大賓、使民如承大祭、己所不欲、勿施於人、在邦無怨、仲弓曰、雍雖不敏、請事斯語矣、
仲弓ちゅうきゅう、仁を問う。いわく、門を出でては大賓だいひんを見るがごとく、民を使うには大祭をくるがごとくす。おのれの欲せざるところは、人にほどこすことなかれ。くにに在りて怨みなく、家にありても怨みなし。仲弓曰く、よう、不敏なりといえども、請う、この語をこととせん。

12-03
Sze-ma Niu asked about perfect virtue.
The Master said, "The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech."
"Cautious and slow in his speech!" said Niu;-"is this what is meant by perfect virtue?" The Master said, "When a man feels the difficulty of doing, can he be other than cautious and slow in speaking?"
司馬牛問仁、子曰、仁者其言也訒、曰、其言也訒、斯可謂之仁已乎、子曰、爲之難、言之得無%乎、
司馬牛しばぎゅう、仁を問う。いわく、仁者はその言うことおそ。曰く、その言うことおそくして、ここにこれを仁と謂うか。いわく、これをなすことかたきなり。これを言いておそきことなきをんや。

12-04
Sze-ma Niu asked about the superior man. The Master said, "The superior man has neither anxiety nor fear."
"Being without anxiety or fear!" said Nui;"does this constitute what we call the superior man?"
The Master said, "When internal examination discovers nothing wrong, what is there to be anxious about, what is there to fear?"
司馬牛問君子、子曰、君子不憂不懼、曰、不憂不懼、斯可謂之君子已乎、子曰、内省不疚、夫何憂何懼、
司馬牛しばぎゅう、君子を問う。いわく、君子はうれえずおそれず。曰く、憂えず懼れず。ここにこれを君子と謂うか。いわく、内にかえりみてやましからずんば、それ何をか憂え、何をかおそれん。

12-05
Sze-ma Niu, full of anxiety, said, "Other men all have their brothers, I only have not."
Tsze-hsia said to him, "There is the following saying which I have heard-'Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honors depend upon Heaven.'
"Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety:-then all within the four seas will be his brothers. What has the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers?"
司馬牛憂曰、人皆有兄弟、我獨亡、子夏曰、商聞之矣、死生有命、富貴在天、君子敬而無失、與人恭而有禮、四海之内、皆爲兄弟也、君子何患乎無兄弟也、
司馬牛しばぎゅううれえて曰く、人にはみな兄弟けいていありて、われにひとりなし。子夏しか曰く、しょう、これを聞く。死生、命あり。富貴は天にあり、と。君子、つつしんで失なく、人にむかい恭にして礼あらば、四海のうち、みな兄弟けいていなり。君子、なんぞ兄弟なきをうれえんや。

12-06
Tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, "He with whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements that startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful may be called intelligent indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling statements, are successful, may be called farseeing."
子張問明、子曰、浸潤之譖、膚受之愬、不行焉、可謂明也已矣、浸潤之譖、膚受之愬、不行焉、可謂遠也已矣、
子張しちょうめいを問う。いわく、浸潤しんじゅんそしり、膚受ふじゅうったえ行なわれざるは、明と謂うべきのみ。浸潤しんじゅんそしり、膚受ふじゅうったえ行なわれざるは、えんと謂うべきのみ。

12-07
Tsze-kung asked about government. The Master said, "The requisites of government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler."
Tsze-kung said, "If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first?" "The military equipment," said the Master.
Tsze-kung again asked, "If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?" The Master answered, "Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of an men; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state."
子貢問政、子曰、足食足兵、民信之矣、子貢曰、必不得已而去、於斯三者、何先、曰去兵、曰必不得已而去、於斯二者、何先、曰去食、自古皆有死、民無信不立、
しこうまつりごとを問う。いわく、食をらわし、兵を足らわし、民にこれを信ぜしむ。子貢曰く、必ずやむを得ずして去らば、この三者においていずれをさきにせん。曰く、兵を去る。子貢曰く、必ずやむを得ずして去らば、この二者においていずれをさきにせん。曰く、食を去る。いにしえよりみな死あり、民、信なければ立たず。

12-08
Chi Tsze-ch'ang said, "In a superior man it is only the substantial qualities which are wanted;-why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?"
Tsze-kung said, "Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue. Ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. The hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is like the hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair."
棘子成曰、君子質而已矣、何以文爲矣、子貢曰、惜乎夫子之説君子也、駟不及舌、文猶質也、質猶文也、虎豹之鞹、猶犬羊之%也、
棘子成きょくしせい曰く、君子はしつのみなり。なんぞ文をもってなさん。子貢曰く、惜しいかな、夫子の君子を説くや。も舌に及ばず。文はなお質のごとく、質はなお文のごときなり。虎豹こひょうかくはなお犬羊けんよう?かくのごとし。

12-09
The Duke Ai inquired of Yu Zo, saying, "The year is one of scarcity, and the returns for expenditure are not sufficient;-what is to be done?"
Yu Zo replied to him, "Why not simply tithe the people?"
"With two tenths, said the duke, "I find it not enough;-how could I do with that system of one tenth?"
Yu Zo answered, "If the people have plenty, their prince will not be left to want alone. If the people are in want, their prince cannot enjoy plenty alone."
哀公問於有若曰、年饑用不足、如之何、有若對曰、盍徹乎、曰、二吾猶不足、如之何其徹也、對曰、百姓足、君孰與不足、百姓不足、君孰與足、
あいこう有若ゆうじゃくに問うて曰く、年えて用足らず。これをいかんせん。有若、対えて曰く、なんぞてっせざるや。曰く、二なるもわれなお足れりとせず。これをいかんぞそれ徹せんや。対えて曰く、百姓ひゃくせい足らば、君たれとともにか足らざらん。百姓足らずんば、君たれとともにからん。

12-10
Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles, and be moving continually to what is right,-this is the way to exalt one's virtue.
"You love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and wish him to die. Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of delusion. 'It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to make a difference.'"
子張問崇徳辨惑、子曰、主忠信徒義、崇徳也、愛之欲其生、惡之欲其死、既欲其生、叉欲其死、是惑也、誠不以富、亦祇以異、
子張しちょう、徳をたっとび惑いを弁ずるを問う。いわく、忠信を主とし義にうつるは徳をたっとぶなり。これを愛してはその生を欲し、これをにくんではその死を欲す。すでにその生を欲し、またその死を欲す。これまどいなり。〔まことに富をもってせず。またただ異をもってするのみ、とあり。〕

12-11
The Duke Ching, of Ch'i, asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son."
"Good!" said the duke; "if, indeed, the prince be not prince, the not minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I have my revenue, can I enjoy it?"
齊景公問政於孔子、孔子對曰、君君。臣臣、父父、子子、公曰、善哉、信如君不君、臣不臣、父不父、子不子、雖有粟、吾豈得而食諸、
せい景公けいこうまつりごとを孔子に問う。孔子こたえて曰く、君を君とし、臣を臣とし、父を父とし、子を子とす。公曰く、いかな。まことにもし、君、君とせられず、臣、臣とせられず、父、父とせられず、子、子とせられずんば、ぞくありといえども、われ得てこれをくらわんや。

12-12
The Master said, "Ah! it is Yu, who could with half a word settle litigations!"
Tsze-lu never slept over a promise.
子曰、片言可以折獄者、其由也與、子路無宿諾、
いわく、片言へんげん、もってうったえさだむべき者は、それゆうなるか、と。子路しろ宿諾しゅくだくなかりき。

12-13
The Master said, "In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary, however, is to cause the people to have no litigations."
子曰、聽訟吾猶人也、必也使無訟乎、
いわく、うったえを聴くは、われはなお人のごときなり。必ずやうったえなからしめんか。

12-14
Tsze-chang asked about government. The Master said, "The art of governing is to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness, and to practice them with undeviating consistency."
子張問政、子曰、居之無倦、行之以忠、
子張しちょうまつりごとを問う。いわく、これに居りてむことなかれ。これを行なうにちゅうをもってせよ。
12-15
The Master said, "By extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not err from what is right."
子曰、君子博學於文、約之以禮、亦可以弗畔矣夫、
いわく、ひろぶんを学び、これをやくするに礼をもってすれば、またもってそむかざるべし。

12-16
The Master said, "The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualities of men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. The mean man does the opposite of this."
子曰、君子成人之美、不成人之惡、小人反是、
いわく、君子は人の美をなし、人の悪をなさず。小人しょうじんはこれにはんす。
12-17
Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "To govern means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare not to be correct?"
季康子問政於孔子、孔子對曰、政者正也、子帥而正、孰敢不正、
季康子きこうしまつりごとを孔子に問う。孔子対えて曰く、せいなる者は正なり。子、ひきいるに正をもってすれば、たれかあえてただしからざらん。

12-18
Chi K'ang, distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired of Confucius how to do away with them. Confucius said, "If you, sir, were not covetous, although you should reward them to do it, they would not steal."
季康子患盗、問於孔子、孔子對曰、苟子之不欲、雖賞之不竊、
季康子きこうしとううれえて、孔子に問う。孔子対えて曰く、いやしくも子の欲せざらんか、これをしょうすといえどもぬすまざらん。

12-19
Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government, saying, "What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" Confucius replied, "Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across it."
季康子問政於孔子、曰、如殺無道以就有道、何如、孔子對曰、子爲政、焉用殺、子欲善而民善矣、君子之徳風也、小人之徳草也、草上之風必偃、
季康子きこうしまつりごとを孔子に問うて曰く、もし無道を殺してもって有道をさばいかん。孔子対えて曰く、子、まつりごとをなすにいずくんぞさつを用いん。子、善を欲すれば民善なり。君子の徳は風にして、小人の徳は草なり。草はこれに風をくわうれば必ずす。
12-20
Tsze-chang asked, "What must the officer be, who may be said to be distinguished?"
The Master said, "What is it you call being distinguished?"
Tsze-chang replied, "It is to be heard of through the state, to be heard of throughout his clan."
The Master said, "That is notoriety, not distinction.
"Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and loves righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their countenances. He is anxious to humble himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished in the country; he will be distinguished in his clan.
"As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but his actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard of in the clan."
子張問、士何如斯可謂之達矣、子曰、何哉、爾所謂達者、子張對曰、在邦必聞、子曰、是聞也、非達也、夫達者、質直而好義、察言而觀色、慮以下人、在邦必達、在家必達、夫聞者色取仁而行違、居之不疑、在邦必聞、在家必聞、
子張しちょう、問う。士はいかにしてここにこれをたつと謂うべきか。いわく、なんぞや。なんじのいわゆる達とは。子張対えて曰く、くににありても必ず聞こえ、家にありても必ず聞こゆ。いわく、これ聞こゆるなり。達にあらざるなり。それ達なるものは、質直しっちょくにして義を好み、言を察して色を観る。はかりありてもって人にくだる。邦にありても必ず達し、家にありても必ず達す。それ聞こゆるとは、いろは仁を取りて行ないは違い、これに居りて疑わず。くににありても必ず聞こえ、家にありても必ず聞こゆ。

12-21
Fan Ch'ih rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain altars, said, "I venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and to discover delusions."
The Master said, "Truly a good question!
"If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success a secondary consideration:-is not this the way to exalt virtue? To assail one's own wickedness and not assail that of others;-is not this the way to correct cherished evil? For a morning's anger to disregard one's own life, and involve that of his parents;-is not this a case of delusion?"
樊遅從遊於舞雩之下、曰、敢問崇徳脩慝辨惑、子曰、善哉問、先事後得、非崇徳與、攻其惡無攻人之惡、非脩慝與、一朝之忿忘其身以及其親、非惑與、
樊遅はんち、従って舞雩ぶうもとに遊ぶ。曰く、あえて徳をたっとび、とくおさめ、惑いを弁ずる、を問う。いわく、善いかな、問いや。ことを先にして得るをのちにす。徳をたっとぶにあらずや。その悪を攻め、人の悪を攻めず。とくを修むるにあらずや。一朝の忿いかりにその身を忘れ、もってその親に及ぶ。まどいにあらずや。

12-22
Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The Master said, "It is to love all men." He asked about knowledge. The Master said, "It is to know all men."
Fan Ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers.
The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in this way the crooked can be made to be upright."
Fan Ch'ih retired, and, seeing Tsze-hsia, he said to him, "A Little while ago, I had an interview with our Master, and asked him about knowledge. He said, 'Employ the upright, and put aside all the crooked;-in this way, the crooked will be made to be upright.' What did he mean?"
Tsze-hsia said, "Truly rich is his saying!
"Shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people, and employed Kai-yao-on which all who were devoid of virtue disappeared. T'ang, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people, and employed I Yin-and an who were devoid of virtue disappeared."
樊遅問仁、子曰愛人、問知、子曰知人、樊遅未達、子曰、擧直錯諸在、能使枉者直、樊遅退、見子夏曰、嚮也吾見於夫子而問知、子曰、擧直錯諸枉、能使枉者直、何謂也、子夏曰、富哉是言乎、舜有天下、選於衆擧皐陶、不仁者
樊遅はんち、仁を問う。いわく、人を愛す。知を問う。いわく、人を知る。樊遅はんちいまだ達せず。いわく、なおきを挙げてこれをまがれるにき、よくまがれる者をしてなおからしむ。樊遅はんち退く。子夏しかを見て曰く、さきにやわれ夫子に見えて知を問うに、子曰く、直きを挙げてこれをまがれるにき、よく枉れる者をして直からしむ、と。何の謂いぞや。子夏曰く、富めるかな、言や。しゅん、天下をたもち、衆より選んで皐陶こうようを挙げて、不仁者、遠ざかる。とう、天下をたもち、衆より選んで伊尹いいんを挙げて、不仁者、遠ざかれり。

12-23
Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The Master said, "Faithfully admonish your friend, and skillfully lead him on. If you find him impracticable, stop. Do not disgrace yourself."
子貢問友、子曰、忠告而以善道之、無自辱焉、
子貢しこう、友を問う。いわく、忠告して善くこれをみちびく。かざればむ。みずからはずかしめらるるなかれ。
12-24
The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man on grounds of culture meets with his friends, and by friendship helps his virtue."
曾子曰、君子以文會友、以友輔仁、
曾子そうし曰く、君子はぶんをもって友をかいし、友をもって仁をたすく。

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子路 第十三

13-01
Tsze-lu asked about government. The Master said, "Go before the people with your example, and be laborious in their affairs."
He requested further instruction, and was answered, "Be not weary in these things."
子路問政、子曰、先之勞之、請益、曰、無倦、
子路しろまつりごとを問う。いわく、これに先んじ、これをねぎらう。えきを請う。曰く、むことなかれ。

13-02
Chung-kung, being chief minister to the head of the Chi family, asked about government. The Master said, "Employ first the services of your various officers, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and talents."
Chung-kung said, "How shall I know the men of virtue and talent, so that I may raise them to office?" He was answered, "Raise to office those whom you know. As to those whom you do not know, will others neglect them?"
仲弓爲季氏宰、問政、子曰、先有司、赦小過、擧賢才、曰、焉知賢才而擧之、曰、擧爾所知、爾所不知、人其舎諸、
ちゅうきゅう季氏きしさいとなり、まつりごとを問う。いわく、さき有司ゆうし小過しょうかゆるし、賢才けんさいを挙げよ。曰く、いずくんぞ賢才けんさいを知りてこれを挙げん。曰く、なんじの知るところを挙げよ。なんじの知らざるところを、人それこれをかんや。

13-03
Tsze-lu said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be done?"
The Master replied, "What is necessary is to rectify names."
"So! indeed!" said Tsze-lu. "You are wide of the mark! Why must there be such rectification?"
The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yu! A superior man, in regard to what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.
"If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.
"When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music do not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.
"Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that in his words there may be nothing incorrect."
子路曰、衛君待子而爲政、子將奚先、子曰、必也正名乎、子路曰、有是哉、子之迂也、奚其正、子曰、野哉由也、君子於其所不知、蓋闕如也、名不正則言不順、言不順則事不成、事不成則禮樂不興、禮樂不興則刑罰不中、刑罰不中則民無所措手足、故君子名之必可言也、言之必可行也、君子於其言、無所苟而已矣、
子路しろ曰く、衛君えいくんを待ちてまつりごとをなさば、子はまさにいずれをか先にせんとする。いわく、必ずや名を正さんか。子路曰く、これあるかな、子のなるや。いずくんぞそれ正さん。いわく、なるかな、ゆうや。君子はその知らざるところにおいて、けだし闕如けつじょたり。名正しからざれば、言うこと順ならず。言うこと順ならざれば、こと成らず。事成らざれば、礼楽れいがくおこらず。礼楽興らざれば、刑罰あたらず、刑罰あたらざれば、民手足しゅそくくところなし。ゆえに君子はこれに名すれば、必ず言うべきなり。これを言えば必ず行なうべきなり。君子はそのげんにおいて、いやしくもするところなきのみ。

13-04
Fan Ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. The Master said, "I am not so good for that as an old husbandman." He requested also to be taught gardening, and was answered, "I am not so good for that as an old gardener."
Fan Ch'ih having gone out, the Master said, "A small man, indeed, is Fan Hsu! If a superior man love propriety, the people will not dare not to be reverent. If he love righteousness, the people will not dare not to submit to his example. If he love good faith, the people will not dare not to be sincere. Now, when these things obtain, the people from all quarters will come to him, bearing their children on their backs; what need has he of a knowledge of husbandry?"
樊遅請學稼、子曰、吾不如老農、請學爲圃、子曰吾不如老圃、樊遅出、子曰、小人哉樊須也、上好禮、則民莫敢不敬、上好義、則民莫敢不服、上好信、則民莫敢不用情、夫如是、則四方之民、襁負其子而至矣、焉用稼、
樊遅はんちを学ばんと請う。いわく、われは老農にしかず。つくることを学ばんと請う。曰く、われは老圃ろうほにしかず。樊遅はんち出ず。いわく、小人なるかな、樊須はんすや。かみ、礼を好めば、民あえて敬せざるなし。上、義を好めば、民あえてふくせざるなし。上、信を好めば、民あえてじょうを用いざるなし。それかくのごとくんば、四方の民、その子を襁負きょうふして至らん。いずくんぞを用いん。

13-05
The Master said, "Though a man may be able to recite the three hundred odes, yet if, when intrusted with a governmental charge, he knows not how to act, or if, when sent to any quarter on a mission, he cannot give his replies unassisted, notwithstanding the extent of his learning, of what practical use is it?"
子曰、誦詩三百、授之以政不達、使於四方不能専對、雖多亦奚以爲、
いわく、詩三百をしょう。これにさずくるにまつりごとをもってして達せず。四方に使いして専対せんたいするあたわずんば、多しといえどもまたなにをもってなさん。

13-06
The Master said, "When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed."
子曰、其身正、不令而行、其身不正、雖令不從、
いわく、その身正しければ、れいせずして行なわる。その身正しからざれば、令すといえどもしたがわれず。
13-07
The Master said, "The governments of Lu and Wei are brothers."
子曰、魯衛之政兄弟也、
いわく、えいとのまつりごとは、兄弟けいていなり。

13-08
The Master said of Ching, a scion of the ducal family of Wei, that he knew the economy of a family well. When he began to have means, he said, "Ha! here is a collection-!" When they were a little increased, he said, "Ha! this is complete!" When he had become rich, he said, "Ha! this is admirable!"
子謂衛公子荊、善居室、始有曰苟合矣、少有曰苟完矣、富有曰苟美矣、
子、えい公子荊こうしけいを謂う、善く室に居る、と。始めて有るや曰く、いやしくも合せり、と。少しく有れば曰く、いやしくもまったし、と。富有なれば曰く、いやしくも美なり、と。

13-09
When the Master went to Weil Zan Yu acted as driver of his carriage.
The Master observed, "How numerous are the people!" Yu said, "Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them?" "Enrich them, was the reply.
"And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" The Master said, "Teach them."
子適衛、冉有僕、子曰、庶矣哉、冉有曰、既庶矣、叉何加焉、曰富之、曰既富矣、叉何加焉、曰教之、
子、えいく。冉有ぜんゆうぼくたり。いわく、おおいかな。冉有曰く、すでにおおし。また何をか加えん。曰く、これをまさん。曰く、すでに富めば、また何をか加えん。曰く、これにおしえん。
13-10
The Master said, "If there were any of the princes who would employ me, in the course of twelve months, I should have done something considerable. In three years, the government would be perfected."
子曰、苟有用我者、期月而已可也、三年有成、
いわく、いやしくもわれを用うる者あらば、期月きげつのみにして可ならん。三年にしてるあらん。
13-11
The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in succession for a hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispense with capital punishments.' True indeed is this saying!"
子曰、善人爲邦百年、亦可以勝殘去殺矣、誠哉是言也、
いわく、善人、くにおさむること百年ならば、またもってざんに勝ちさつを去るべし、と。誠なるかな、このげんや。

13-12
The Master said, "If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would stir require a generation, and then virtue would prevail."
子曰、如有王者、必世而後仁、
いわく、もし王者あらんも、必ず世にしてのちに仁たらん。
13-13
The Master said, "If a minister make his own conduct correct, what difficulty will he have in assisting in government? If he cannot rectify himself, what has he to do with rectifying others?"
子曰、苟正其身矣、於從政乎何有、不能正其身、如正人何、
いわく、いやしくもその身を正しくせば、まつりごとに従うにおいて何かあらん。その身を正しくするあたわずんば、まつりごとをいかんせん。

13-14
The disciple Zan returning from the court, the Master said to him, "How are you so late?" He replied, "We had government business." The Master said, "It must have been family affairs. If there had been government business, though I am not now in office, I should have been consulted about it."
冉子退朝、子曰、何晏也、對曰、有政、子曰、其事也、如有政、雖不吾以、吾其與聞之、
冉子ぜんしちょうより退く。いわく、なんぞおそきや。対えて曰く、まつりごとありき。いわく、それことならん。もしまつりごとあらば、われをもってせずといえども、われそれこれにあずかり聞かん。

13-15
The Duke Ting asked whether there was a single sentence which could make a country prosperous. Confucius replied, "Such an effect cannot be expected from one sentence.
"There is a saying, however, which people have -'To be a prince is difficult; to be a minister is not easy.'
"If a ruler knows this,-the difficulty of being a prince,-may there not be expected from this one sentence the prosperity of his country?"
The duke then said, "Is there a single sentence which can ruin a country?" Confucius replied, "Such an effect as that cannot be expected from one sentence. There is, however, the saying which people have-'I have no pleasure in being a prince, but only in that no one can offer any opposition to what I say!'
"If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose them? But if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may there not be expected from this one sentence the ruin of his country?"
定公問、一言而可以興邦有諸、孔子對曰、言不可以若是、其幾也、人之言曰、爲君難、爲臣不易、如知爲君之難也、不幾乎一言而興邦乎、曰、一言而可喪邦有諸、孔子對曰、言不可以若是、其幾也、人之言曰、予無樂乎爲君、唯其言而樂莫予違也、如其善而莫之違也、不亦善乎、如不善而莫之違也、不幾乎一言而喪邦乎、
定公ていこう、問う。一言にしてもってくにおこすべきはこれあるか。孔子対えて曰く、言はもってかくのごとくなるべからざるも、それちかきか。人の言に曰く、君たるは難く、臣たるはやすからず、と。もし君たるの難きを知らば、一言にして邦を興すにちかからずや。曰く、一言にして邦をほろぼすもの、これありや。孔子対えて曰く、言はもってかくのごとくなるべからざるも、それちかきか。人の言に曰く、われ君たるより楽しきはなし。ただそれ言うのみにして、われにたがうなきなり、と。もしそれ善くしてこれにたがうなくんば、また善からずや。もし善からずして、これにたがうなくんば、一言にして邦を喪ぼすにちかからずや。

13-16
The Duke of Sheh asked about government. The Master said, "Good government obtains when those who are near are made happy, and those who are far off are attracted."
葉公問政、子曰、近者説、遠者來、
葉公しょうこうまつりごとを問う。いわく、近き者よろこべば、遠き者きたる。

13-17
Tsze-hsia! being governor of Chu-fu, asked about government. The Master said, "Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small advantages. Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished."
子夏爲魯キョ父宰、問政、子曰、毋欲速、毋見小利、欲速則不達、見小利則大事不成、
子夏しか?父きょほの宰となり、まつりごとを問う。いわく、すみやかなるを欲するなかれ。小利しょうりを見ることなかれ。すみやかならんと欲すれば達せず。小利を見れば、大事だいじ成らず。

13-18
The Duke of Sheh informed Confucius, saying, "Among us here there are those who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their father have stolen a sheep, they will bear witness to the fact."
Confucius said, "Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of the son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to be found in this."
葉公語孔子曰、吾黨有直躬者、其父攘羊、而子證之、孔子曰、吾黨之直者異於是、父爲子隱、子爲父隱、直在其中矣、
葉公しょうこう、孔子に語りて曰く、わが党に直躬ちょくきゅうなる者あり。その父、ひつじぬすむ。しこうして、これをしょうせり。孔子曰く、わが党のなおき者はこれに異なり。父は子のためにかくし、子は父のために隠す。なおきことそのうちに在り。

13-19
Fan Ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, in retirement, to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be reverently attentive; in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. Though a man go among rude, uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be neglected."
樊遅問仁、子曰、居處恭、執事敬、與之夷狄、不可棄也、
樊遅はんち、仁を問う。いわく、居処きょしょするにうやうやしく、ことるにつつしみ、人にむかって忠ならば、夷狄いてきくといえども、つべからざるなり。

13-20
Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called an officer? The Master said, "He who in his conduct of himself maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace his prince's commission, deserves to be called an officer."
Tsze-kung pursued, "I venture to ask who may be placed in the next lower rank?" And he was told, "He whom the circle of his relatives pronounce to be filial, whom his fellow villagers and neighbors pronounce to be fraternal."
Again the disciple asked, "I venture to ask about the class still next in order." The Master said, "They are determined to be sincere in what they say, and to carry out what they do. They are obstinate little men. Yet perhaps they may make the next class."
Tsze-kung finally inquired, "Of what sort are those of the present day, who engage in government?" The Master said "Pooh! they are so many pecks and hampers, not worth being taken into account."
子貢問曰、何如斯可謂之士矣、子曰、行己有恥、使於四方不辱君命、可謂士矣、曰、敢問其次、曰、宗族稱孝焉、郷黨稱弟焉、曰、敢問其次、曰、言必信、行必果、 硜硜然小人也、抑亦可以爲次矣、曰、今之從政者何如、子曰、噫、斗筲之人、何足算也、
子貢、問うて曰く、いかなればここにこれを士と謂うべきか。いわく、おのれを行なうに恥あり。四方に使いして君命をはずかしめず。士と謂うべし。曰く、あえてその次を問う。曰く、宗族そうぞく、孝を称し、郷党きょうとうていを称す。曰く、あえてその次を問う。曰く、言うこと必ず信、行なうこと必ず硜硜然こうこうぜんとして小人なるかな。そもそもまたもって次となすべし。曰く、今のまつりごとに従う者はいかん。いわく、ああ斗筲とそうの人、なんぞかぞうるにらんや。

13-21
The Master said, "Since I cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom I might communicate my instructions, I must find the ardent and the cautiously-decided. The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the cautiously-decided will keep themselves from what is wrong."
子曰、不得中行而與之、必也狂狷乎、狂者進取、狷者有所不爲也、
いわく、中行ちゅうこうなるものを得てこれにくみするにあらずんば、必ずや狂狷きょうけんか。狂なる者は進んで取り、けんなる者はなさざるところあるなり。

13-22
The Master said, "The people of the south have a saying -'A man without constancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' Good!
"Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace."
The Master said, "This arises simply from not attending to the prognostication."
子曰、南人有言、曰、人而無恆、不可以作巫醫、善夫、不恆其徳、或承之羞、子曰、不占而已矣、
いわく、南人なんじん言えることあり。曰く、人にしてつねなければ、もって巫医ふいすべからず、と。善いかな。その徳をつねにせざれば、あるいはこれにはじすすむ、とあり。いわく、うらなわずしてやまん。

13-23
The Master said, "The superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the mean man is adulatory, but not affable."
子曰、君子和而不同、小人同而不和、
いわく、君子はしてどうぜず、小人は同じて和せず。

13-24
Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What do you say of a man who is loved by all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master replied, "We may not for that accord our approval of him." "And what do you say of him who is hated by all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master said, "We may not for that conclude that he is bad. It is better than either of these cases that the good in the neighborhood love him, and the bad hate him."
子貢問曰、郷人皆好之何如、子曰、未可也、郷人皆惡之何如、子曰、未可也、不如郷人之善者好之、其不善者惡之也、
子貢しこう、問うて曰く、郷人きょうじんみなこれを好しとせばいかん。いわく、いまだ可ならざるなり。郷人きょうじんみなこれをわろしとせばいかん。いわく、いまだ可ならざるなり。郷人きょうじんの善き者これを好しとし、その善からざる者これをわろしとするにしかず。

13-25
The Master said, "The superior man is easy to serve and difficult to please. If you try to please him in any way which is not accordant with right, he will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to everything."
子曰、君子易事而難説也、説之不以道、不説也、及其使人也、器之、小人難事而易説也、説之雖不以道、説也、及其使人也、求備焉、
いわく、君子はつかやすくしてよろこばし難きなり。これをよろこばすに道をもってせざればよろこばざるなり。その人を使うに及んでや、これをとす。小人はつかえ難くして説ばし易きなり。これをよろこばすに道をもってせずといえどもよろこべばなり。その人を使うに及んでや、そなわるを求む。

13-26
The Master said, "The superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The mean man has pride without a dignified ease."
子曰、君子泰而不驕、小人驕而不泰、
いわく、君子はやすくしておごらず。小人は驕りて泰からず。
13-27
The Master said, "The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest are near to virtue."
子曰、剛毅朴訥近仁、
いわく、ごうぼくとつなるは仁に近し。

13-28
Tsze-lu asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called a scholar?" The Master said, "He must be thus,-earnest, urgent, and bland:-among his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, bland."
子路問曰、何如斯可謂之士矣、子曰、切切偲偲怡怡如也、可謂士矣、朋友切切偲偲、兄弟怡怡如也、
子路、問うて曰く、いかなればここにこれを士と謂うべきか。いわく、切切せつせつ偲偲しし怡怡如いいじょたらば、士と謂うべきなり。朋友には切切せつせつ偲偲ししたり。兄弟けいていには怡怡いいたれ。

13-29
The Master said, "Let a good man teach the people seven years, and they may then likewise be employed in war."
子曰、善人教民七年、亦可以即戎矣、
いわく、善人が民を教うること七年ならば、またもってじゅうかしむべし。
13-30
The Master said, "To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them away."
子曰、以不教民戰、是謂棄之、
いわく、教えざるの民をひきいて戦う。これ、これをつと謂うなり。

[TOP]


-------------------------
憲問 第十四

14-01
Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary;-this is shameful."
憲問恥、子曰、邦有道穀、邦無道穀、恥也、
けんはじを問う。いわく、くにに道あればこくす。邦に道なくして穀するは、はじなり。

14-02
"When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."
The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."
克伐怨欲不行焉、可以爲仁矣、子曰、可以爲難矣、仁則吾不知也、
こくばつえんよく、行なわれざるは、もって仁となすべきか。いわく、もってかたしとなすべし。仁はすなわちわれらざるなり。

14-03
The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar."
子曰、士而懐居、不足以爲士矣、
いわく、士にして居をおもえば、もって士となすに足らず。
14-04
The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."
子曰、邦有道危言危行、邦無道危行言孫、
いわく、くにに道あるときは、言をたかくし行ないをたかくす。邦に道なきときは、行ないをたかくし、言はゆず

14-05
The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."
子曰、有徳者必有言、有言者不必有徳、仁者必勇、勇者不必有仁、
いわく、徳ある者は必ず言あり。言ある者は必ずしも徳あらず。仁者じんしゃは必ず勇あり。勇者ゆうしゃは必ずしもじんあらず。

14-06
Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, "I was skillful at archery, and Ao could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them died a natural death. Yu and Chi personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and they became possessors of the kingdom." The Master made no reply; but when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said, "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"
南宮适問於孔子曰、羿善射、奡盪舟、倶不得其死然、禹稷躬稼而有天下、夫子不答、南宮适出、子曰、君子哉若人、尚徳哉若人、
南宮适なんきゅうかつ、孔子に問いて曰く、羿げいしゃくし、ごうは舟をくつがえす。ともにその死のしかるを得ず。しょくみずからして天下をたもてり、と。夫子、答えず。南宮适なんきゅうかつ出ず。いわく、君子なるかな、かくのごとき人、徳をたっとぶかな、かくのごとき人。

14-07
The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous."
子曰、君子而不仁者有矣夫、未有小人而仁者也、
いわく、君子にして不仁ふじんなる者あるかな。いまだ小人しょうじんにして仁なる者あらざるなり。
14-08
The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its object?"
子曰、愛之能勿勞乎、忠焉能勿誨乎、
いわく、これを愛してはよくねぎらうなからんや。忠ならば、よくおしうるなからんや。

14-09
The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, P'i Shan first made the rough draft; Shi-shu examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yu, the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and, finally, Tsze-ch'an of Tung-li gave it the proper elegance and finish."
子曰、爲命卑諶草創之、世叔討論之、行人子羽脩飾之、東里子産潤色之、
いわく、めいつくるには、卑諶ひじん、これを草創そうそうし、世叔せいしゅく、これを討論し、行人こうじん子羽しう、これを脩飾しゅうしょくし、東里とうり子産しさん、これを潤色じゅんしょくせり。

14-10
Some one asked about Tsze-ch'an. The Master said, "He was a kind man."
He asked about Tsze-hsi. The Master said, "That man! That man!"
He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, "the city of Pien, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Po family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarse rice to eat."
或問子産、子曰、惠人也、問子西、曰、彼哉、彼哉、問管仲、曰、人也、奪伯氏駢邑三百、飯疏食、沒齒無怨言、
あるひと子産しさんを問う。いわく、恵人けいじんなり。子西しせいを問う。曰く、彼をや、彼をや。管仲かんちゅうを問う。曰く、人なり。伯氏はくし駢邑べんゆう三百を奪う。疏食そしくらい、を没するまで怨言えんげんなかりき。

14-11
The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy."
子曰、貧而無怨難、富而無驕易、
いわく、ひんにして怨むなきはかたく、富みておごるなきはやすし。
14-12
The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in the families of Chao and Wei, but he is not fit to be great officer to either of the states Tang or Hsieh."
子曰、孟公綽爲趙魏老則優、不可以爲膝薛大夫也、
いわく、孟公綽もうこうしゃくちょうろうたるには優なり。もってとうせつの大夫となるべからず。

14-13
Tsze-lu asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said, "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Wu-chung, the freedom from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Pien, and the varied talents of Zan Ch'iu; add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music;-such a one might be reckoned a Complete man."
He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man."
子路問成人、子曰、若臧武仲之知、公綽之不欲、卞莊子之勇、冉求之藝、文之以禮樂、亦可以爲成人矣、曰、今之成人者、何必然、見利思義、見危授命、久要不忘平生之言、亦可以爲成人矣、
子路しろ、成人を問うて曰く、臧武仲ぞうぶちゅうの知、公綽こうしゃくの不欲、卞荘子べんそうしの勇、冉求ぜんきゅうの芸あるがごとくして、これをかざるに礼楽をもってすれば、またもって成人となすべきか。いわく、今の成人なる者はなんぞ必ずしもしからん。利を見ては義を思い、あやうきを見てはいのちを授け、久要きゅうよう平生へいぜいの言を忘れざれば、またもって成人せいじんとなすべし。

14-14
The Master asked Kung-ming Chia about Kung-shu Wan, saying, "Is it true that your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"
Kung-ming Chia replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth.-My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." The Master said, "So! But is it so with him?"
子問公叔文子於公明賈、曰、信乎、夫子不言不笑不取乎、公明賈對曰、以告者過也、夫子時然後言、人不厭其言也、樂然後笑、人不厭其言也、義然後取、人不厭其取也、子曰、其然、豈其然乎、
子、公叔文子こうしゅくぶんし公明賈こうめいかに問うて曰く、まことなるか、夫子は言わず、笑わず、取らずとは。公明賈こうめいか対えて曰く、もってぐる者のあやまちなり。夫子は時にしてしかるのちに言う。人、その言をいとわず。楽んでしかるのちに笑う。人、その笑うをいとわず。義にしてしかるのちに取る。人、その取るをいとわず。いわく、それしかり。あにそれしからんや。

14-15
The Master said, "Tsang Wu-chung, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the duke of Lu to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be said that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was."
子曰、臧武仲以防求爲後於魯、雖曰不要君、吾不信也、
いわく、臧武仲ぞうぶちゅうぼうをもってのちをなすことをに求めたり。君をようせずというといえども、われはしんぜざるなり。
14-16
The Master said, "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright. The duke Hwan of Ch'i was upright and not crafty."
子曰、晋文公譎而不正、齊桓公正而不譎、
いわく、しんの文公は、きつにして正ならず。せい桓公かんこうは正にしてきつならず。

14-17
Tsze-lu said, "The Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed, when Shao Hu died, with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?"
The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots:-it was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"
子路曰、桓公殺公子糾、召忽死之、管仲不死、曰未仁乎、子曰、桓公九合諸侯、不以兵車、管仲之力也、如其仁、如其仁、
子路しろ曰く、桓公かんこう公子糾こうしきゅうを殺して、召忽しょうこつこれに死し、管仲かんちゅうは死せず。いまだ仁ならずといわんか。いわく、桓公は諸侯を九合きゅうごうし、兵車をもってせざるは、管仲の力なり。その仁をいかんせん、その仁をいかんせん

14-18
Tsze-kung said, "Kwan Chung, I apprehend was wanting in virtue. When the Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan."
The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the Duke Hwan made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side.
"Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"
子貢曰、管仲非仁者與、桓公殺公子糾、不能死、叉相之、子曰、管仲相桓公覇諸侯、一匡天下、民到于今受其賜、微管仲、吾其被髪左衽矣、豈若匹夫匹婦之爲諒也、自経於溝涜而莫之知也、
子貢しこう曰く、管仲かんちゅうは非仁なる者か。桓公かんこう公子糾こうしきゅうを殺したるに、死するあたわず。またこれにしょうたり。いわく、管仲は桓公をしょうとし、諸侯にたらしめ、天下を一匡いっきょうす。民、今にいたるまで、そのを受く。管仲なかりせば、われそれはつこうむり、えりを左にせん。あに匹夫ひっぷ匹婦ひっぷまことをなし、みずから溝?こうとくくびれてこれを知るなきがごとくせんや。

14-19
The great officer, Hsien, who had been family minister to Kung-shu Wan, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.
The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be considered WAN (the accomplished)."
公叔文子之臣大夫僎、與文子同升諸公、子聞之曰、可以爲文矣、
公叔文子こうしゅくぶんしの臣の大夫せん、文子と同じく、これを公にしょうさる。子、これを聞いて曰く、もってぶんとなすべし。

14-20
The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Weil when Ch'i K'ang said, "Since he is of such a character, how is it he does not lose his state?"
Confucius said, "The Chung-shu Yu has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Chia has the direction of the army and forces:-with such officers as these, how should he lose his state?"
子言衛霊公之無道也、康子曰、夫如是、奚而不喪、孔子曰、仲叔圉治賓客、祝鴕治宗廟、王孫賈治軍旅、夫如是、奚其喪、
子、えい霊公れいこう無道むどうを言うや、康子こうし曰く、それかくのごとくんば、なんすれぞほろびざる。孔子曰く、仲叔圉ちゅうしゅくぎょ賓客ひんかくを治め、祝?しゅくだ宗廟そうびょうを治め、王孫賈おうそんか軍旅ぐんりょを治む。それかくのごとし、なんすれぞそれほろびん。

14-21
The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good."
子曰、其言之不作、則其爲之也難、
いわく、それこれを言いてじざれば、すなわちこれをなすやかたし。

14-22
Chan Ch'ang murdered the Duke Chien of Ch'i. Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the Duke Ai, saying, "Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him."
The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."
Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."
He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter."
陳成子弑簡公、孔子沐浴而朝、告於哀公曰、陳恆弑其君、請討之、公曰、告夫三子、孔子曰、以吾從大夫之後、不敢不告也、君曰、告夫三子者、之三子告、不可、孔子曰、以吾從大夫之後、不敢不告也、
陳成子ちんせいし簡公かんこうしいす。孔子、沐浴もくよくしてちょうし、哀公あいこうに告げて曰く、陳恒ちんこう、そのきみしいす。請うこれをたん。公曰く、かの三子さんしに告げよ。孔子曰く、われは大夫のしりえに従うをもって、あえて告げずんばあらざるなり。きみは曰う、かの三子者さんししゃに告げよ、と。三子にきて告ぐ。かれず。孔子曰く、われは大夫のしりえに従うをもって、あえてげずんばあらざるなり、と。

14-23
Tsze-lu asked how a ruler should be served. The Master said, "Do not impose on him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."
子路問事君、子曰、勿欺也、而犯之、
しろきみつかえんことを問う。いわく、あざむくなかれ。しこうしてこれをおかせ。
14-24
The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is upwards; the progress of the mean man is downwards."
子曰、君子上達、小人下達、
いわく、君子は上達じょうたつし、小人しょうじん下達かたつす。
14-25
The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."
子曰、古之學者爲己、今之學者爲人、
いわく、いにしえの学者はおのれのためにす。今の学者は人のためにす。

14-26
Chu Po-yu sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius.
Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is your master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"
蘧伯玉使人於孔子、孔子與之坐而問焉、曰夫子何爲、對曰、夫子欲寡其過而未能也、使者出、子曰、使乎使乎、
蘧伯玉きょはくぎょく、人を孔子に使いせしむ。孔子、これに坐を与えて問うて曰く、夫子は何をかなす。対えて曰く、夫子はその過ちをすくなくせんと欲していまだあたわざるなり。使者ず。いわく、使つかいなるかな、使つかいなるかな。

14-27
The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."
子曰、不在其位、不謀其政、
いわく、その位にあらざれば、そのまつりごとはからず。
14-28
The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place."
曾子曰、君子思不出其位、
そうし曰く、君子は思うこと、その位より出でず。
14-29
The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions."
子曰、君子恥其言之過其行也、
いわく、君子はそのげんのその行ないにぐるをず。

14-30
The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.
子曰、君子道者三、我無能焉、仁者不憂、知者不惑、勇者不懼、子貢曰、夫子自道也、
いわく、君子の道なる者さんあり。われよくするなし。仁者じんしゃは憂えず、知者は惑わず。勇者はおそれず。子貢曰く、夫子みずからうなり。

14-31
Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."
Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master said, "Tsze must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this."
子貢方人、子曰、賜也賢乎哉、夫我則不暇、
しこう、人をたくらぶ。いわく、や、賢なるかな。われはすなわちいとまあらず。
14-32
The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; I will be concerned at my own want of ability."
子曰、不患人之不己知、患己無能也、
いわく、人のおのれを知らざるをうれえず、その不能をうれうるなり。
14-33
The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily when they occur;-is he not a man of superior worth?"
子曰、不逆詐、不億不信、抑亦先覺者、是賢乎、
いわく、いつわりをむかえず。まことならざるをはからず。そもそもまた先ずさとる者はこれけんなるか。

14-34
Wei-shang Mau said to Confucius, "Ch'iu, how is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker?
Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I hate obstinacy."
微生畝謂孔子曰、丘何爲是栖栖者與、無乃爲佞乎、孔子對曰、非敢爲佞也、疾固也、
微生?びせいほ、孔子を謂いて曰く、きゅうはなんぞこの栖栖せいせいたるをなすか。すなわちねいたるなからんや、と。孔子曰く、あえてねいをなすにあらず。固きをにくむなり。

14-35
The Master said, "A horse is called a ch'i, not because of its strength, but because of its other good qualities."
子曰、驥不称其力、称其徳也、
いわく、はその力をしょうせず。その徳を称するなり。
14-36
Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?"
The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?"
"Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."
或曰、以徳報怨、何如、子曰、何以報徳、以直報怨、以徳報徳、
或るひと曰く、徳をもって怨みにむくいたらばいかん。いわく、何をもって徳にむくいん。なおきをもって怨みに報い、徳をもって徳にむくいん。

14-37
The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me." Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying-that no one knows you?" The Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;-that knows me!"
子曰、莫我知也夫、子貢曰、何爲其莫知子也、子曰、不怨天、不尤人、下學而上達、知我者其天乎、
いわく、われを知るものなきかな。子貢しこう曰く、何すれぞそれ子を知るなからんや。いわく、天をうらみず、人をとがめず、下学かがくして上達じょうたつす。われを知る者は、それてんなるか。

14-38
The Kung-po Liao, having slandered Tsze-lu to Chi-sun, Tsze-fu Ching-po informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our master is certainly being led astray by the Kung-po Liao, but I have still power enough left to cut Liao off, and expose his corpse in the market and in the court."
The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. If they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the Kung-po Liao do where such ordering is concerned?"
公伯寮愬子路於季孫、子服景伯以告曰、夫子固有惑志於公伯寮也、吾力猶能肆諸市朝、子曰、道之將行也與、命也、道之將廢也與、命也、公伯寮其如命何、
こうはくりょう子路しろ季孫きそんうったう。子服景伯しふくけいはく、もって告げて曰く、夫子もとより公伯寮に惑志わくしあり。わが力、なおよくこれを市朝しちょうさらさん。いわく、道のまさに行なわれんとするや、命なり。道のまさにすたれんとするや、命なり。公伯寮こうはくりょう、それ命をいかんせん。

14-39
The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world. Some retire from particular states. Some retire because of disrespectful looks. Some retire because of contradictory language."
The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."
子曰、賢者避世、其次避地、其次避色、其次避色、子曰、作者七人矣、
いわく、賢者は世をく。その次は地をく。その次いろく。その次は言をく。
14-40
Tsze-lu happening to pass the night in Shih-man, the gatekeeper said to him, "Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lu said, "From Mr. K'ung." "It is he,-is it not?"-said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the times and yet will be doing in them."
子路宿於石門、晨門曰、奚自、子路曰、自孔氏、是知其不可而爲之者與、
しろ石門せきもん宿しゅくす。晨門しんもん曰く、いずれよりする。子路曰く、孔氏よりす。曰く、これその(なす)べからざるを知りて、これをなさんとするものか。

14-41
The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in Weil when a man carrying a straw basket passed door of the house where Confucius was, and said, "His heart is full who so beats the musical stone."
A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for public employment. 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'"
The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not difficult!"
子撃磬於衛、有荷蕢而過孔氏之門者、曰、有心哉撃磬乎、既而曰、鄙哉、 硜硜乎、莫己知也斯己而已矣、深則厲、淺則掲、子曰、果哉、末之難矣、
子、けいえいに撃つ。ふごにないて孔氏の門を過ぐる者あり。曰く、心あるかな、けいつや、と。すでにして曰く、なるかな。硜硜こうこうたるや。おのれを知るなくんば、ここにやまんのみ、深ければころもぬぎ、浅ければすそかかぐ、ものぞ。いわく、はだかなるかな。これをかたしとするきなり。

14-42
Tsze-chang said, "What is meant when the Shu says that Kao-tsung, while observing the usual imperial mourning, was for three years without speaking?"
The Master said, "Why must Kao-tsung be referred to as an example of this? The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers all attended to their several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for three years."
子張曰、書云、高宗諒陰三年不言、何謂也、子曰、何必高宗、古之人皆然、君薨、百官總己以聽於冢宰三年、
子張しちょう曰く、しょに云う、高宗こうそう諒陰りょうあんに、三年ものいわず、とあり。なんのいぞや。いわく、なんぞ必ずしも高宗のみならん。いにしえの人はみなしかり。きみこうずれば、百官ひゃくかんはおのれをべて、もって冢宰ちょうさいに聴くこと三年なり。

14-43
The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on them for service."
子曰、上好禮、則民易使也、
いわく、かみ、礼を好めば、民、使いやすきなり。
14-44
Tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "The cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "And is this all?" said Tsze-lu. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others," was the reply. "And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lu. The Master said, "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people:-even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this."
子路問君子、子曰、脩己以敬、曰如斯而已乎、曰脩己以安人、曰如斯而已乎、曰脩己以安百姓、脩己以安百姓、尭舜其猶病諸、
子路、君子を問う。いわく、おのれをおさむるに敬をもってす。曰く、かくのごときのみか。曰く、おのれを脩めてもって人をやすんず。曰くかくのごときのみか。曰く、おのれを脩めてもって百姓ひゃくせいを安んぜん。おのれを脩めてもって百姓を安んずるは、堯舜ぎょうしゅんもそれなおこれをめり。

14-45
Yuan Zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach of the Master, who said to him, "In youth not humble as befits a junior; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and living on to old age:-this is to be a pest." With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.
原壌夷俟、子曰、幼而不孫弟、長而無述焉、老而不死、是爲賊、以杖叩其脛、
原壌げんじょうあぐらしてつ。いわく、幼にして孫弟そんていならず、長じて?おそるるところなく、老いて死せず。これをぞくとなす、と。つえをもってそのすねたたく。

14-46
A youth of the village of Ch'ueh was employed by Confucius to carry the messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, "I suppose he has made great progress."
The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man."
闕黨童子將命矣、或問之曰、益者與、子曰、吾見其居於位也、見其與先生竝行也、非求益者也、欲速成者也、
闕党けっとう童子どうじめいおこなう。ある人これを問いて曰く、益する者か。いわく、われそのくらいに居るを見る。その先生とならび行くを見る。益を求むる者にあらざるなり。すみやからんと欲するものなり。

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衛霊公 第十五

15-01
The Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. Confucius replied, "I have heard all about sacrificial vessels, but I have not learned military matters." On this, he took his departure the next day.
衛靈公問陳於孔子、孔子對曰、俎豆之事、則嘗聞之矣、軍旅之事、未之學也、明日遂行、
えい霊公れいこうちんを孔子に問う。孔子こたえて曰く、俎豆そとうことはすなわちかつてこれを聞けり。軍旅ぐんりょのことはいまだこれを学ばざるなり、と。明日めいじつついにる。

15-02
When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers became so in that they were unable to rise.
Tsze-lu, with evident dissatisfaction, said, "Has the superior man likewise to endure in this way?" The Master said, "The superior man may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license."
在陳絶糧、從者病莫能興、子路慍見曰、君子亦有窮乎、子曰、君子固窮、小人窮斯濫矣、
陳にありてりょうつ。従者病み、よくつことなし。子路しろいかまみえて曰く、君子もまた窮するあるか。いわく、君子もとより窮す。小人は窮すればここにらんす。

15-03
The Master said, "Ts'ze, you think, I suppose, that I am one who learns many things and keeps them in memory?"
Tsze-kung replied, "Yes,-but perhaps it is not so?" "No," was the answer; "I seek a unity all pervading."
子曰、賜也、女以予爲多學而識之者與、對曰然、非與、曰、非也、予一以貫之、
いわく、や、なんじはわれをもって多く学んでこれをる者となすか。対えて曰く、しかり。あらざるか。曰く、あらず。われはいつもってこれをつらぬく。
15-04
The Master said, "Yu I those who know virtue are few."
子曰、由、知徳者鮮矣、
いわく、ゆうや、徳を知る者はすくないかな。
15-05
The Master said, "May not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but gravely and reverently occupy his royal seat."
子曰、無爲而治者、其舜也與、夫何爲哉、恭己正南面而已矣、
いわく、なすなくして治むる者は、それ舜なるか。それ何をかなすや。おのれをうやうやしくして、南面をただすのみ。

15-06
Tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be everywhere appreciated.
The Master said, "Let his words be sincere and truthful and his actions honorable and careful;-such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes of the South or the North. If his words be not sincere and truthful and his actions not honorable and carefull will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even in his neighborhood?
"When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to the yoke. Then may he subsequently carry them into practice."
Tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.
子張問行、子曰、言忠信、行篤敬、雖蠻貊之邦行矣、言不忠信、行不篤敬、雖州里行乎哉、立則見其参於前也、在輿則見其倚於衡也、夫然後行也、子張書諸紳、
しちょう、行なわるることを問う。いわく、言うこと忠信にして、行ない篤敬とくけいなれば、蛮貊ばんぱくくにといえども行なわれん。言うこと忠信ならず、行ない篤敬ならずんば、州里しゅうりといえども行なわれんや。立てばその前にまじわるを見、輿にありてはそのこうるを見て、それしかるのちに行なわれん。子張これをしんに書す。

15-07
The Master said, "Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yu. When good government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow. When bad government prevailed, he was like an arrow. A superior man indeed is Chu Po-yu! When good government prevails in his state, he is to be found in office. When bad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, and keep them in his breast."
子曰、直哉史魚、邦有道如矢、邦無道如矢、君子哉蘧伯玉、邦有道則仕、邦無道則可卷而懷之
いわく、ちょくなるかな、史魚しぎょくにに道あれば矢のごとく、邦に道なきも矢のごとし。君子なるかな、蘧伯玉きょはくぎょく、邦に道あれば仕え、邦に道なければ、いてこれをふところにすべし。

15-08
The Master said, "When a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him is to err in reference to the man. When a man may not be spoken with, to speak to him is to err in reference to our words. The wise err neither in regard to their man nor to their words."
子曰、可與言而不與之言、失人、不可與言而與之言、失言、知者不失人、亦不失言、
いわく、ともに言うべくしてこれと言わざれば、人を失う。ともに言うべからずしてこれと言えば、げんを失う。知者は人を失わず、また言を失わず。

15-09
The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete."
子曰、志士仁人、無求生以害仁、有殺身以成仁、
いわく、志士しし仁人じんじんは、生を求めてもって仁をがいするなく、身を殺してもって仁をすあり。

15-10
Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said, "The mechanic, who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen his tools. When you are living in any state, take service with the most worthy among its great officers, and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars."
子貢問爲仁、子曰、工欲善其事、必先利其器、居是邦也、事其大夫之賢者、友其士之仁者也、 しこう、仁を為さんことを問う。いわく、こう、その事を善くせんと欲すれば、必ず先ずそのを利にす。是の邦に居るや、その大夫の賢なる者につかえ、その士の仁なる者を友とす。

15-11
Yen Yuan asked how the government of a country should be administered.
The Master said, "Follow the seasons of Hsia. "Ride in the state carriage of Yin. "Wear the ceremonial cap of Chau. "Let the music be the Shao with its pantomimes. Banish the songs of Chang, and keep far from specious talkers. The songs of Chang are licentious; specious talkers are dangerous."
顔淵問爲邦、子曰、行夏之時、乘殷之輅、服周之冕、樂則韶舞、放鄭聲、遠佞人、鄭聲淫、佞人殆、
がんえん、邦をおさめんことを問う。いわく、の時を行ない、いんに乗り、周のかんむりを服す。がくはすなわち韶舞しょうぶ鄭声ていせいを放ち、佞人ねいじんを遠ざく。鄭声はいんにして、佞人はあやうし。

15-12
The Master said, "If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand."
子曰、人而無遠慮、必有近憂、
いわく、人、遠きおもんぱかりなければ、必ず近き憂えあり。
15-13
The Master said, "It is all over! I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."
子曰、已矣乎、吾未見好徳如好色者也、
いわく、やんぬるかな。われはいまだ徳を好むこと、いろを好むがごとき者を見ず。
15-14
The Master said, "Was not Tsang Wan like one who had stolen his situation? He knew the virtue and the talents of Hui of Liu-hsia, and yet did not procure that he should stand with him in court."
子曰、臧文仲其竊位者與、知柳下惠之賢、而不與立也、
いわく、臧文仲ぞうぶんちゅうはそれくらいぬすむ者か。柳下恵りゅうかけいの賢なるを知りて、ともにたざるなり。

15-15
The Master said, "He who requires much from himself and little from others, will keep himself from being the object of resentment."
子曰、躬自厚、而薄責於人、則遠怨矣、
いわく、みずから厚くして、薄く人をむれば、怨みに遠ざかる。
15-16
The Master said, "When a man is not in the habit of saying-'What shall I think of this? What shall I think of this?' I can indeed do nothing with him!"
子曰、不曰如之何如之何者、吾末如之何也已矣、
いわく、これをいかん、これをいかんと曰わざる者は、われこれをいかんともするきのみ。

15-17
The Master said, "When a number of people are together, for a whole day, without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond of carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness;-theirs is indeed a hard case."
子曰、羣居終日、言不及義、好行小慧、難矣哉、
いわく、群居ぐんきょすること終日、げん、義に及ばず、好んで小慧しょうけいを行なう。かたいかな。

15-18
The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man."
子曰、君子義以爲質、禮以行之、孫以出之、信以成之、君子哉、
いわく、君子は義、もって質となし、礼、もってこれを行ない、そん、もってこれをだし、信、もってこれをす。君子なるかな。

15-19
The Master said, "The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He is not distressed by men's not knowing him."
子曰、君子病無能焉、不病人之不己知也、
いわく、君子はよくするなきをうれえ、人のおのれを知らざるをうれえざるなり。
15-20
The Master said, "The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death."
子曰、君子疾沒世而名不称焉、
いわく、君子はを没して名のしょうせられざるをむ。

15-21
The Master said, "What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What the mean man seeks, is in others."
子曰、君子求諸己、小人求諸人、
いわく、君子はこれをおのれに求め、小人しょうじんはこれを人に求む。
15-22
The Master said, "The superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a partisan."
子曰、君子矜而不爭、羣而不黨、
いわく、君子はほこりて争わず、ぐんしてとうせず。
15-23
子曰、君子不以言擧人、不以人廢言、
The Master said, "The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man."
いわく、君子は言をもって人をげず、人をもって言をはいせず。

15-24
Tsze-kung asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not Reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."
子貢問曰、有一言而可以終身行之者乎、子曰、其恕乎、己所不欲、勿施於人也、
子貢、問うて曰く、一言いちげんにしてもって終身これを行なうべきものあるか。いわく、それじょか。おのれの欲せざるところは人にほどこすことなかれ。

15-25
The Master said, "In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, whose goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise, there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual.
"This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path of straightforwardness."
子曰、吾之於人也、誰毀誰譽、如有所譽者、其有所試矣、斯民也、三代之所以直道而行也、
いわく、われの人におけるや、たれをかそしりたれをかめん。もし誉むるところある者は、それこころみしところあるなり。この民や、三代のなおきをもってみちびいてかしめしところなり。

15-26
The Master said, "Even in my early days, a historiographer would leave a blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Now, alas! there are no such things."
子曰、吾猶及史之闕文也、有馬者借人乘之、今則亡矣夫、
いわく、われはなお〔闕文〕に及べり。馬ある者は人にしてこれに乗らしめたり、と。いまはなきかな。

15-27
The Master said, "Specious words confound virtue. Want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans."
子曰、巧言亂徳、小不忍、則亂大謀、
いわく、巧言こうげんは徳を乱る。小を忍ばざれば、すなわち大謀たいぼうを乱る。
15-28
The Master said, "When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine into the case."
子曰、衆惡之必察焉、衆好之必察焉、
いわく、衆、これをにくむは、必ずこれをさっし、衆、これを好むも、必ずこれをさっす。
15-29
The Master said, "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the man."
子曰、人能弘道、非道弘人也、
いわく、人、よく道をひろむ。道の人を弘むるにはあらず。
15-30
The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them,-this, indeed, should be pronounced having faults."
子曰、過而不改、是謂過矣、
いわく、あやまちて改めず、これを過ちと謂う。
15-31
The Master said, "I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole night without sleeping:-occupied with thinking. It was of no use. better plan is to learn."
子曰、吾嘗終日不食、終夜不寝、以思、無益、不如學也、
いわく、われかつて終日らわず、終夜ねずして、もって思うもえきなし。学ぶにしかざるなり。
15-32
The Master said, "The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his object. There is plowing;-even in that there is sometimes want. So with learning;-emolument may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him."
子曰、君子謀道、不謀食、耕也餒在其中矣、學也禄在其中矣、君子憂道、不憂貧、
いわく、君子は道をはかりてしょくを謀らず。たがやすや、いいそのうちにあり。学ぶや、ろくそのうちにあり。君子は道を憂え、ひんなるを憂えず。

15-33
The Master said, "When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he will lose again.
"When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect him.
"When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules of propriety:-full excellence is not reached."
子曰、知及之、仁不能守之、雖得之必失之、知及之、仁能守之、不莊以之、則民不敬、知及之、仁能守之、莊以之、動之不以禮、未善也、
いわく、これに及ぶも、仁もてこれを守るあたわざれば、これをといえども、必ずこれを失う。知これに及び、仁もてよくこれを守るも、そうにしてもってこれにのぞまざれば、民敬せず。知これに及び、仁もてよくこれを守り、そうにしてもってこれにのぞむも、これを動かすに礼をもってせざれば、いまだからざるなり。

15-34
The Master said, "The superior man cannot be known in little matters; but he may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man may not be intrusted with great concerns, but he may be known in little matters."
子曰、君子不可不知、而可大受也、小人不可大受、而可小知也、
いわく、君子は小知しょうちせしむべからずして、大受たいじゅせしむべきなり。小人は大受たいじゅせしむべからずして、小知しょうちせしむべきなり。

15-35
The Master said, "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man die from treading the course of virtue."
子曰、民之於仁也、甚於水火、水火吾見蹈而死者矣、未見蹈仁而死者也、
いわく、民の仁におけるや、水火すいかよりもはなはだし。水火はわれんで死する者を見る。いまだ仁をんで死する者を見ざるなり。

15-36
The Master said, "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself. He may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher."
子曰、當仁不譲於師、
いわく、仁に当りては師にゆずらず。
15-37
The Master said, "The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."
子曰、君子貞而不諒、
いわく、君子はていにしてりょうならず。

15-38
The Master said, "A minister, in serving his prince, reverently discharges his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration."
子曰、事君敬其事而後其食、
いわく、君につかうるには、その事をつつしみて、その食をのちにす。
15-39
The Master said, "In teaching there should be no distinction of classes."
子曰、有教無類、
いわく、教えありてるいなし。
15-40
The Master said, "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another."
子曰、道不同、不相爲謀、
いわく、道、同じからざれば、あいためはからず。
15-41
The Master said, "In language it is simply required that it convey the meaning."
子曰、辭達而已矣、
いわく、は達するのみ。

15-42
The music master, Mien, having called upon him, when they came to the steps, the Master said, "Here are the steps." When they came to the mat for the guest to sit upon, he said, "Here is the mat." When all were seated, the Master informed him, saying, "So and so is here; so and so is here."
The music master, Mien, having gone out, Tsze-chang asked, saying. "Is it the rule to tell those things to the music master?"
The Master said, "Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the blind."
子冕見、及階、子曰、階也、及席、子曰、席也、皆坐、子告之曰、某在斯、某在斯、師冕出、子張問曰、與師言之道與、子曰、然、固相師之道也、
師冕しべんまみゆ。かいに及ぶ。いわく、階なり。席に及ぶ。いわく、席なり。みな坐す。子これに告げて曰く、それがしはここにあり、それがしはここにあり、と。師冕しべんず。子張しちょう問うて曰く、師と言うの道か。いわく、しかり。もとより師をたすくるの道なり。

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季氏 第十六

16-01
The head of the Chi family was going to attack Chwan-yu.
Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our chief, Chil is going to commence operations against Chwan-yu."
Confucius said, "Ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault here?
"Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct connection with the sovereign: What has your chief to do with attacking it?"
Zan Yu said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers wishes it."
Confucius said, "Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan, -'When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?'
"And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository:-whose is the fault?"
Zan Yu said, "But at present, Chwan-yu is strong and near to Pi; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants."
Confucius said. "Ch'iu, the superior man hates those declining to say-'I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their conduct.
"I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.
"So it is.-Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.
"Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, assisting your chief. Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.
"And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state.-I am afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sun family will not be on account of Chwan-yu, but will be found within the screen of their own court."
  季子將伐顓臾、冉有季路見於孔子曰、季氏將有事於顓臾、孔子曰、求、無乃爾是過與、夫顓臾、昔者先王以爲東蒙主、且在邦域之中矣、是社稷之臣也、何以爲伐也、冉有曰、夫子欲之、吾二臣者、皆不欲也、孔子曰、求、周任有言、曰、陳力就列、不能者止、危而不持、顛而不扶、則將焉用彼相矣、且爾言過矣、虎兕出於柙、龜玉毀於櫝中、是誰之過與、冉有曰、今夫顓臾固而近於費、今不取、後世必爲子孫憂、孔子曰、求、君子疾夫舎曰欲之而必更爲之辭、丘也聞、有國有家者、不患寡而患不均、不患貧而患不安、蓋均無貧、和無寡、安無傾、夫如是、故遠人不服、則修文徳以來之、既來之則安之、今由與求也、相夫子、遠人不服、而不能來也、邦文崩離析而不能守也、而謀動干戈於邦内、吾恐季孫之憂、不在於顓臾、而在蕭牆之内也、
季氏きし、まさに顓臾せんゆたんとす。冉有ぜんゆう季路きろ、孔子にまみえて曰く、季氏、まさに顓臾せんゆことあらんとす。孔子曰く、きゅうや、すなわちなんじはこれあやまてることなきか。それ?臾せんゆは、むかし先王、もって東蒙とうもうの主となせり。かつ邦域ほういきうちにあり。これ社稷しゃしょくの臣なり。なんぞつをもってなさん。冉有ぜんゆう曰く、夫子ふうしこれを欲す。われら二臣にしんの者はみな欲せざるなり。孔子曰く、求や、周任しゅうじん言えるあり。曰く、力をべて列にき、あたわざればむ、と。危くしてせず、くつがえりてたすけずんば、はたいずくんぞかのしょうを用いん。かつなんじのげんあやまてり。虎兕こじこうより出で、亀玉きぎょく櫝中とくちゅうやぶれなば、これたれの過ちぞ。冉有ぜんゆう曰く、今それ顓臾せんゆは固くしてに近し。今取らずんば、後世こうせい必ず子孫の憂えとならん。
孔子曰く、求や、君子はかのこれを欲すと曰うをきて、必ずこれが辞をなすをにくむ。きゅうや聞く、国をたもち家をたもつ者は、すくなきをうれえずしてひとしからざるを患え、貧しきを患えずして安からざるを患う、と。けだし、ひとしければ貧しきことなく、すればすくなきことなく、安ければ傾くことなし。それかくのごとし。ゆえに遠人えんじん服せざれば、文徳を修めてもってこれをきたす。すでにこれをきたせば、すなわちこれを安んず。今、由と求や、夫子をたすけ、遠人服せずして、きたすことあたわず。くに文崩ぶんほう離析りせきして守るあたわざるなり。しこうして干戈かんか邦内ほうないに動かさんとはかる。われ恐らくは季孫きそんの憂えは、顓臾せんゆにあらずして、蕭牆しょうしょうのうちにあらん。

16-02
Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule, the case will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, as a rule the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations.
"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the great officers.
"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions among the common people."
孔子曰、天下有道、則禮樂征伐自天子出、天下無道、則禮樂征伐自諸侯出、自諸侯出、蓋十世希不失矣、自大夫出、五世希不失矣、陪臣執國命、三世不失矣、天下有道、則政不在大夫、天下有道、則庶人不議、 孔子曰く、天下に道あれば、礼楽れいがく征伐せいばつ、天子より出ず。天下に道なければ、すなわち礼楽れいがく征伐せいばつ、諸侯より出ず。諸侯よりずれば、けだし十世にして失わざることまれなり。大夫より出ずれば、五世にして失わざることまれなり。陪臣ばいしん国命こくめいれば、三世にして失わざることまれなり。天下に道あれば、まつりごと、大夫にあらず。天下に道あれば、庶人しょじんせず。

16-03
Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced."
孔子曰、禄之去公室五世矣、政逮大夫四世矣、故夫三桓之子孫微矣、
孔子曰く、ろく公室こうしつを去ること五世なり。まつりごと、大夫におよぶこと四世なり。ゆえに三桓さんかんの子孫なり。

16-04
Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the uplight; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation:-these are advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued:-these are injurious."
孔子曰、益者三友、友直、友諒、友多聞、益矣、友便辟、友善柔、友便佞、損矣、
孔子曰く、益する者に三友あり、損する者に三友あり。なおきを友とし、まことあるを友とし、多聞たぶんを友とするは益なり。便辟べんぺきを友とし、善柔ぜんじゅうを友とし、便佞べんねいを友とするはそん<